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Covid-19 News: Live Updates

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

Covid-19 News: Live Updates


Latest News

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

President Trump said the White House “may or may not” approve new F.D.A. guidelines that would toughen the process for approving a coronavirus vaccine.Right NowThe number of U.S. workers who filed unemployment claims last week rose, as layoffs remained high during the pandemic.Videotranscripttranscript‘It Won’t Be Politics,’ F.D.A. Chief Says of Vaccine Approval ProcessDr. Stephen M.…

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

President Trump said the White House “may or may not” approve new F.D.A. guidelines that would toughen the process for approving a coronavirus vaccine.

Right Now

The number of U.S. workers who filed unemployment claims last week rose, as layoffs remained high during the pandemic.

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transcript

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‘It Won’t Be Politics,’ F.D.A. Chief Says of Vaccine Approval Process

Dr. Stephen M. Hahn, the commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, told lawmakers he was confident that the development of a coronavirus vaccine would be safe from political interference.

“We have not made a commitment to the timeline per se because we haven’t seen the data, and we don’t know the complexity of the data or the amount of data that will come our way. What I can tell you, sir, is we do feel the urgency of the moment. We do take very much — very seriously our responsibility to protect American lives. We will not delay, but we will not cut corners in our process.” “Dr. Hahn, you said that you have every confidence in the scientists and staff at F.D.A. And I appreciate that and I do too, by the way — is there some kind of deep state that you have seen in the F.D.A. that is any way trying to do anything other than quickly get a vaccine, get therapeutics to the American public?” “Senator, I will answer your question this way. I have 100 percent confidence in the outstanding scientists, doctors, nurses, pharmacists at F.D.A. who have remarkably stood up during this pandemic to help expedite getting medical products to the American people. I have complete confidence in their decisions. And I have complete confidence in the actions that have been taken to date.” “And that confidence is based on following the science not any political pressure, and that’s what we’re expecting with a vaccine approval.” “Yes, sir. And I’ve said that several times today, and I appreciate the opportunity to say it again, our career scientists for any medical products, and particularly vaccines, will follow the science and data and our rigorous standards. And it won’t be politics that make any part of that decision, sir.”

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Dr. Stephen M. Hahn, the commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, told lawmakers he was confident that the development of a coronavirus vaccine would be safe from political interference.CreditCredit…Pool photo by Graeme Jennings

Trump suggests that the F.D.A.’s new vaccine approval plans may be driven by politics.

President Trump said on Wednesday that the White House “may or may not” approve new Food and Drug Administration guidelines that would toughen the process for approving a coronavirus vaccine, and suggested the plan “sounds like a political move.”

The pronouncement once again undercut government scientists who had spent the day trying to bolster public faith in the promised vaccine. Just hours earlier, four senior physicians leading the federal coronavirus response strongly endorsed the tighter safety procedures, which would involve getting outside expert approval before a vaccine could be declared safe and effective by the F.D.A.

Last week, Mr. Trump said that the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had “made a mistake” when he said that most Americans would not complete the vaccination process until next summer and that masks were at least as important as a vaccine to control the virus’s spread.

The F.D.A. had planned to issue stricter guidelines for the emergency authorization of any new coronavirus vaccine, which would add a new layer of caution to the vetting process, even as the president has insisted a vaccine will be ready as early as next month. Mr. Trump, though, cast doubt on the F.D.A. plan.

“That has to be approved by the White House,” he said, adding, “We may or may not approve it.” Raising questions about why vaccine makers would want to delay the process, he said, “We are looking at that, but I think that was a political move more than anything else.”

He pointedly said he had “tremendous trust in these massive companies” that are testing the vaccines, adding, “I don’t know that a government as big as” the federal government could do as well.

At Wednesday’s Senate hearing, the doctors — Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Dr. Stephen M. Hahn, the commissioner of the F.D.A.; Dr. Robert R. Redfield, the C.D.C. director; and Admiral Brett P. Giroir, the coronavirus testing czar — defended their scientific integrity amid mounting evidence that Mr. Trump and his administration have interfered with their agencies’ decision-making and growing public doubts about a vaccine.

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C.D.C. Director Projects 700 Million Covid-19 Doses by April

In his Senate testimony, Dr. Robert R. Redfield said that some Americans will not be able to access a coronavirus vaccine until July 2021.

Ultimately, it’s going to be the vaccines that are going to get us back to the way of life — as we get an effective vaccine. What I was trying to comment, as Senator Kaine alluded to, if the vaccine only induces an immune response in half the people, then it’s exceptional that half the people may not get protection from the vaccine. And what really I was trying to say maybe was just to re-emphasize how important this mask is. And we should have, if projected, about 700 million doses by April, late March, and that should be enough to vaccinate 350 million people because you require two doses. When I was alluding to late second quarter, early third quarter, I was alluding to how long I felt it would take to get those 700 million doses into the American public and complete the vaccine process. And you, know, I can defer to Dr. Fauci for his opinion, but I think that’s going to take us to April, May, June, you know possibly July, to get the entire American public completely vaccinated. But we will have the 700 million doses based on projection by late March, early April.

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In his Senate testimony, Dr. Robert R. Redfield said that some Americans will not be able to access a coronavirus vaccine until July 2021.

All four officials pledged to take any vaccine approved by the F.D.A. and said they would encourage their families to do the same.

Polls show a troubling drop in the number of Americans who would be willing to take a coronavirus vaccine. A survey published last week by the Pew Research Center found that 51 percent of Americans would either probably or definitely take a vaccine, down from 72 percent in May.

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Israel will tighten its national lockdown as infection rates soar.

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Credit…Dan Balilty for The New York Times

The Israeli government said on Thursday that it was tightening its second national lockdown after coronavirus infection rates soared this week to about 7,000 new cases a day, among the highest in the world.

The new measures, which go into effect on Friday, will remain in place at least until the end of the Jewish High Holy Days in mid-October. Most businesses will have to close, and all gatherings, including protests and communal prayers, will be restricted to groups of up to 20 people outdoors within about 1,100 yards of home.

An exception has been made for Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the Jewish calendar, which begins at sundown on Sunday. Limited numbers of worshipers will be allowed to pray inside synagogues as they did during last week’s Rosh Hashana, or New Year, holiday.

Ultra-Orthodox cabinet ministers had argued that for many Jews, praying outdoors in the heat on Monday would be unbearable, especially for those observing the 25-hour fast of the sacred day of atonement.

The government was still mulling whether to halt outbound flights allowing Israelis to travel abroad from Ben-Gurion International Airport.

The new restrictions were largely meant to address a heated dispute roiling Israel. On one side are those who say they have the right to hold mass protests against Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, which have been taking place weekly in the streets near his official residence in Jerusalem. On the other are Orthodox politicians who oppose restrictions on prayer as long as the protests are allowed to continue.

The Israeli Parliament must approve any measures limiting the freedom to protest, which is anchored in law.

England finally releases a contact-tracing app.

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Credit…Neil Hall/EPA, via Shutterstock

After various fits and starts, delays and technical missteps, England on Thursday released a contact-tracing app that the government hopes will help slow the spread of the coronavirus by alerting those who have been in proximity to an infected person.

Released just as Britain is imposing new restrictions in response to surge of cases, the app, called “NHS Covid-19,” uses technology created by Apple and Google to anonymously log when a person comes into close contact with another user of the app. If a person tests positive for the coronavirus, the app sends an alert to those they have come into contact to self-isolate and get tested.

The app, now available in Apple’s App Store and Google’s Play store, also has a way for people to “check in” at restaurants, bars and other locations they visit by scanning a bar code, another measure to help track down individuals who have been exposed to the virus.

Release of the app follows various delays and challenges. The government had initially vowed to build an app without help from Apple or Google, saying it would offer more flexibility to track the spread of the disease. But after confronting technical challenges, the government reversed course. The switch delayed the release of the app, which at one point had been slated to be introduced in May. The app was released in England and Wales; similar technology had already been released in Northern Ireland and Scotland.

Some older phones are not able to handle the new app, which requires version iOS 13.5 or later for an iPhone and version 6 or later for Android. That means Apple handsets that are an iPhone 6 or older will not be compatible.

The effectiveness of the app will in part depend on how many people use it. Without wide adoption, its usefulness is more limited. The technology could also test the government’s overall track-and-trace system, which has been riddled with problems.

“Everybody who downloads the app will be helping to protect themselves, helping to protect their loved ones, helping to protect their community because the more people who download it, the more effective it will be,” Matt Hancock, the country’s health secretary, told the BBC.

Fears of the virus appear to fuel a killing in North Korea.

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Credit…Ed Jones/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

A South Korean government official apparently trying to defect to North Korea was shot and killed by troops in the North who set his body on fire for fear he might be carrying the coronavirus, South Korean officials said on Thursday.

The violent episode threatens to further derail diplomatic ties between the two countries.

The official who was killed was a first mate on a government ship​ monitoring fishing boats ​near a disputed sea border ​with North Korea early Monday. After he went missing, South Korean ships and planes conducted an extensive search but could not find him before he drifted into North Korean waters.

A North Korean fishing patrol boat found the man wearing a life jacket and clinging to a floatable device on Tuesday afternoon, South Korean officials said. Hours later, they said, a North Korean Navy ship approached the man and opened fire under orders from higher-ups, although it was clear he was trying to defect.

North Korean soldiers wearing gas masks and other protective gear then poured oil on his body and set it on fire, they said.

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South Korea’s Defense Ministry called the killing a stunning and “atrocious” act and demanded that the North punish those responsible.

North Korea has yet to comment on the shooting. If confirmed by the North, it would be the first time ​that the country’s government has killed a South Korean citizen in its territory since 2008.

In July, North Korea locked down a city near its border with South Korea after a ​​North Korean man who had defected to the South three years ago ​swam across the western border to return to the city. The North’s leader, Kim Jong-un, declared a “maximum” national emergency for fear the man may “have been infected with the vicious virus​.”​

But South Korean officials have said there is no proof the man carried the coronavirus. Experts are also skeptical of North Korea’s persistent claim that it has no confirmed Covid-19 cases.

global roundup

Indonesia surpasses 10,000 deaths as its caseload surges.

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Credit…Ajeng Dinar Ulfiana/Reuters

Indonesia’s coronavirus death toll soared past 10,000 on Thursday, as new cases continued to surge across the nation and within the president’s cabinet.

The world’s fourth-most-populous country already has the second-highest death toll from the coronavirus in the Asia-Pacific region, after India. Experts believe that many more deaths have gone unreported in Indonesia because many patients suspected of having the disease died before their test results were returned.

Cases are still climbing, too: Indonesia, which until last week had never reached 4,000 new cases in a single day, has now passed that mark five times in the past six days. Over the past week it has reported nearly 30,000 new cases, on par with Britain, Israel and Mexico.

On Thursday afternoon, Indonesia reported 4,634 new cases, a daily record, and 128 deaths, bringing the total number of deaths to 10,105.

The minister of religious affairs, Fachrul Razi, 73, became the third member of President Joko Widodo’s cabinet to test positive, his office said Monday. The ministers of transportation and fisheries have both recovered, but a top Jakarta government official died last week.

Indonesia was slow to adopt coronavirus restrictions earlier this year, then quick to lift them in the hope of reviving the economy. Jakarta, the capital, recently imposed a partial shutdown for the second time. But the government’s overall approach appears to have backfired as cases keep rising and the economy sputters.

The country’s economy is expected to contract this year for the first time since the Asian economic crisis of 1998, the finance minister, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, said Tuesday. She forecast a decline in the gross domestic product of as much as 1.7 percent this year.

The government is urging members of the public to wear masks and is imposing fines of up to $16.75 for those not wearing one. A few people have been told to lie in a coffin as punishment. Others have chosen to dig graves for Covid-19 victims rather than pay a fine.

Health experts are concerned that campaign events for regional elections planned for December could cause new incidents of superspreading. And they worry that seasonal flooding could soon displace thousands from their homes and cause more contagion as people crowd into shelters.

They also fear that the country’s beleaguered medical system could be overwhelmed by a surge of patients. Some hospitals are nearing capacity and more than 4,300 patients with moderate or no symptoms are being housed at an athletic village in Jakarta.

“We really need the public’s assistance to carry out health protocols, because if we continue like this, all our existing systems will collapse,” the national medical volunteer coordinator, Jossep William, told reporters on Monday.

In other developments around the world:

  • China National Biotec Group, a front-runner in developing a coronavirus vaccine, will donate 200,000 doses of its vaccine to health care workers in the city of Wuhan, where the pandemic first emerged nine months ago, the chairman of the company said on Thursday. The vaccine, which is developed by the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products and the Wuhan Institute of Virology, has only cleared two phases of clinical trials but has been approved for emergency use. It is currently in the final stage of trials in more than 10 countries.

  • Germany on Thursday added the cities of Copenhagen, Dublin and Lisbon to a list of high-risk areas in the European Union that travelers are being encouraged to avoid. Germany has a seven-day average of about 1,700 new cases a day. The country’s foreign minister, Heiko Maas, has also gone into quarantine after a person on his staff tested positive for the virus.

  • Hong Kong has added the United Kingdom to its list of high-risk countries, meaning that, starting Oct. 1, arriving visitors must show proof of a negative coronavirus test within 72 hours of boarding their flight. Travelers must also have a confirmed hotel reservation for a mandatory 14-day quarantine.

  • A prestigious hospitality management school in Switzerland sent 2,500 of its students into a 10-day quarantine after an outbreak that was thought to have stemmed from a party. The École Hôtelière de Lausanne was scheduled to reopen next week.

  • About 600 students at the University of Glasgow in Scotland are self-isolating after an outbreak of at least 124 cases of the virus across two residence halls. The university attributed the outbreak to students socializing during the first week of the semester and said the affected students would be required to remain in their accommodation for 14 days. Outbreaks at other universities in Scotland have prompted a voluntary lockdown at St. Andrews last weekend and 500 students to quarantine in Dundee. Scotland’s first minister, Nicola Sturgeon, told students on Wednesday, “Please know that we appreciate the sacrifices you are making at this very important stage of your lives.”

  • Breaking with a lucrative winter tradition, Chancellor Sebastian Kurz of Austria announced on Thursday that, while resorts would be allowed to open for skiing, après-ski, or after-ski, gatherings would not be allowed this coming season. At many European resorts, après ski is characterized by copious amounts of alcohol, live music and exuberant celebration. Last winter, health officials traced hundreds of virus cases to the après ski in the Austrian village of Ischgl.

  • Attendance at a soccer game on Thursday between two of Europe’s top teams, Bayern Munich and Sevilla, will be limited to a third of the stadium’s capacity as part of virus-prevention measures. A maximum of 20,000 fans will be admitted to the game in Hungary, to be played at a stadium in Budapest.

Virus cases are reported in 100 New York City school buildings.

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Credit…Todd Heisler/The New York Times

At least one coronavirus case had been reported in more than 100 school buildings and early childhood centers in the New York City school system by the first day of in-person instruction on Monday, according to the Department of Education.

Nearly all the buildings remained open, though six were closed temporarily, in accordance with city guidelines that only those schools that report at least two cases in different classrooms will be shut.

The cases occurred between Sept. 8, when teachers and staff members reported to schools, and Monday, when the first students entered classrooms.

In dozens of cases, the infected individuals got the positive test results and did not report to work, the department said. Others did report to school, and their close contacts in the buildings were told to quarantine for two weeks.

Avery Cohen, a spokeswoman for Mayor Bill de Blasio, said that the cases included a “handful” of students, but that “the vast majority were among staff before schools reopened for students.”

Some public health experts said the statistics reflect a new reality.

With in-person learning taking place in a system with 1.1 million schoolchildren, 75,000 teachers, and 2,500 school buildings and early childhood centers, new cases will most likely be a daily occurrence, they said. Individual building closings will also be common, they said.

Dr. Michael Mina, an assistant professor of epidemiology at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said New York City families should be prepared for a constant game of Whac-a-Mole. The virus is likely to re-emerge repeatedly in school buildings until there is either a vaccine or very frequent testing, he said.

Ideally, Dr. Mina said, 50 percent of all students and staff members should be tested three times a week.

A high-ranking Indian official has died from the virus.

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Credit…Sanjeev Verma/Hindustan Times, via Getty Images

A minister in the Indian government became the first high-ranking official to die from the coronavirus as the country struggles to contain a rapidly increasing caseload.

Suresh Angadi, 65, who died on Wednesday, was a junior minister for the Indian Railways. He is the fourth Indian lawmaker to die from Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus.

Mr. Angadi was a powerful politician from the southern state of Karnataka, where he worked to strengthen the base of Bharatiya Janata Party, the Hindu nationalist party that rules India.

India’s prime minister, Narendra Modi, said Mr. Angadi was an effective minister, who worked hard in his state to make his political party strong, and was admired across the political spectrum.

“His demise is saddening,” Mr. Modi wrote on Twitter.

With 5.7 million confirmed cases, India has the world’s second-highest caseload after the United States and is inching toward the top spot. At least 91,000 Indians have been killed by the virus, and the country recorded 1,129 deaths in the past 24 hours.

At least 17 Indian lawmakers have tested positive for Covid-19, a majority of them from the Bharatiya Janata Party, according to officials.

Reporting was contributed by Choe Sang-Hun, Mike Ives, Isabel Kershner, Benjamin Novak, Richard C. Paddock, Elian Peltier, Adam Satariano, Anna Schaverien, Christopher F. Schuetze, Dera Menra Sijabat, Sheryl Gay Stolberg, Sui-Lee Wee, Sameer Yasir and Elaine Yu.

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Covid-19 News: Live Updates

Fauci cautions the virus could disrupt life in the U.S. until ‘maybe even towards the end of 2021.’The United States should not expect a return to normal until “well into 2021, maybe even towards the end of 2021,” Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious diseases expert, said on Friday.In an interview with “Andrea…

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

The United States should not expect a return to normal until “well into 2021, maybe even towards the end of 2021,” Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious diseases expert, said on Friday.

In an interview with “Andrea Mitchell Reports” on MSNBC, Dr. Fauci addressed when people would most likely be able to do things again that they had done before the pandemic, such as going to an indoor movie theater “with impunity.” While a vaccine may be available by the end of the year, he said, “by the time you mobilize the distribution of the vaccinations, and you get the majority or more of the population vaccinated and protected, that’s likely not going to happen till the mid or end of 2021.”

Dr. Fauci was also asked about comments he had made on Thursday in a panel discussion at Harvard Medical School, where he said “we need to hunker down and get through this fall and winter because it’s not going to be easy.” Ms. Mitchell pointed out that this conflicted with what President Trump had said at the White House on the same day, that the country had “rounded the final turn” on the virus.

“I have to disagree,” Dr. Fauci said of Mr. Trump’s optimistic read on the situation.

“We’re plateauing at around 40,000 cases a day and the deaths are around 1,000.” He raised concerns that Labor Day could make that number rise again, as Memorial Day and the Fourth of July had done before.

But in any case, he said “what we don’t want to see is going into the fall season when people will be spending more time indoors — and that’s not good for a respiratory borne virus — you don’t want to start off already with a baseline that’s so high.”

As of Thursday, there had been an average of 35,629 cases per day over the previous week, a decrease of 16 percent from the average two weeks earlier, according to a Times database. Case numbers remain persistently high across much of the country, though reports of new cases have dropped considerably since late July, when the country averaged well over 60,000 per day.

But even as many of the country’s most populous states saw vast improvement — and as the Northeast kept case reports low — new infections were rising by late summer across parts of the Midwest and South.

Deaths, though still well below their peak levels in the spring, averaged around 700 per day in mid-September, more than were reported in early July.

China is still most likely months away from mass producing a vaccine that is safe for public use. But the country is using the prospect of the drug’s discovery in a charm offensive aimed at repairing damaged ties and bringing friends closer in regions China deems vital to its interests.

Latin American and Caribbean nations will receive loans to buy the medicine, and Bangladesh will get over 100,000 free doses from a Chinese company.

In the Philippines, where China is competing with the United States for influence, President Rodrigo Duterte told lawmakers in July that he had “made a plea” to China’s leader, Xi Jinping, for help with vaccines. He also said he would not confront China over its claims to the South China Sea.

A day later, Wang Wenbin, a spokesman for China’s Foreign Ministry, said China was willing to give the Philippines priority access to a vaccine.

China’s vaccine pledges, on top of earlier shipments of masks and ventilators around the world, help it project itself as a responsible player and could also help it push back against accusations that the ruling Communist Party should be held accountable for its initial missteps when the coronavirus first emerged in China in December.

The Trump administration has roundly attacked Beijing over its handling of the virus crisis, as well as over accusations that Chinese-directed hackers have tried to steal vaccine research to gain an edge. The Justice Department indicted two Chinese suspects accused of targeting pharmaceutical companies in July.

China is a leader in the global race for a Covid-19 vaccine, and four out of the eight late phase clinical trials are for Chinese vaccines. The country began testing experimental vaccines on soldiers and employees of state-owned companies in July, and the testing has quietly expanded to include health care and aviation workers. Chinese vaccine makers have built factories that can produce hundreds of thousands of doses.

The United States has three vaccine candidates in late-stage trials, with Pfizer saying it could apply for emergency approval as early as October and Moderna saying it hopes to have a vaccine by the end of the year. AstraZeneca, a British-Swedish company that received U.S. government funding to develop its vaccine, paused its late-stage global trials this week because of a serious suspected adverse reaction in a participant.

But Chinese vaccine companies that have gone abroad to conduct clinical trials have also generated controversy amid fears that local residents are being treated like guinea pigs. And some political experts worry about the leverage that China could wield over countries that accept vaccines.

“Should we be suspicious, or should we be grateful?” asked Muhammad Zulfikar Rakhmat, an academic at Universitas Islam Indonesia, who researches China’s foreign policy in Indonesia.

Long before the coronavirus swept into her village in the rugged southeast of Afghanistan, Halima Bibi knew the gnawing fear of hunger. It was a relentless source of anxiety as she struggled to nourish her four children.

Her husband earned about $5 a day, hauling produce by wheelbarrow from a local market to surrounding homes. Most days, he brought home a loaf of bread, potatoes and beans for an evening meal.

But when the virus arrived in March, taking the lives of her neighbors and shutting down the market, her husband’s earnings plunged to about $1 a day. Most evenings, he brought home only bread. Some nights, he returned with nothing.

“We hear our children screaming in hunger, but there is nothing that we can do,” said Ms. Bibi, speaking by telephone from a hospital in Kabul, where her 6-year-old daughter was being treated for severe malnutrition. “That is not just our situation, but the reality for most of the families where we live.”

As the global economy absorbs the most punishing reversal of fortunes since the Great Depression, hunger is on the rise. Those confronting potentially life-threatening levels of so-called food insecurity in the developing world are expected to nearly double this year to 265 million, according to the United Nations World Food Program.

The largest numbers of vulnerable communities are concentrated in South Asia and Africa, especially in countries that are already confronting trouble, including military conflict, extreme poverty and climate-related afflictions like drought, flooding and soil erosion.

Under bright blue skies, nearly 2,000 students gathered this month for the start of school at Hanyang No. 1 High School in Wuhan, the Chinese city where the coronavirus first emerged.

Medical workers stood guard at school entrances, taking temperatures. Administrative officials reviewed the students’ travel histories and coronavirus test results. Local Communist Party cadres kept watch, making sure teachers followed detailed instructions on hygiene and showed an “anti-epidemic spirit.”

“I’m not worried,” a music teacher at the school, Yang Meng, said in an interview. “Wuhan is now the safest place.”

As countries around the world struggle to safely reopen schools this fall, China’s Communist Party is harnessing the power of its authoritarian system to offer in-person learning for about 195 million students in kindergarten through 12th grade at public schools.

It has mobilized battalions of local officials and party cadres to inspect classrooms, deployed apps and other technology to monitor students and staff, and restricted their movements. It has even told parents to stay away for fear of spreading germs.

China’s leader, Xi Jinping, said in a speech on Tuesday that the country’s progress in fighting the virus, including the opening of schools, had “fully demonstrated the clear superiority of Communist Party leadership and our socialist system.”

In many ways, China is applying the same heavy-handed model to reopen schools that it has used to bring the virus under control. To stop the epidemic, the authorities imposed harsh lockdowns and deployed invasive technologies to track residents, raising public anger in some places and concerns about the erosion of privacy and civil liberties.

With schools, the government’s effort has in some places been met with similar frustrations. Teachers, who are at times doubling as medical workers, checking for fevers and isolating sick students, say they are exhausted by the new protocols. Students have complained that some policies, such as lockdowns on university campuses, are excessive.

“The Chinese system moves by itself,” said Yong Zhao, a scholar at the University of Kansas who has studied education in China. “The system is run like a military: it just goes for it, no matter what anyone thinks.”

A new study suggests that restaurant dining may have increased the risk of exposure to the virus for some patrons, but several researchers said that the links between contracting the virus and eating out should be viewed with caution, because the study did not distinguish between patrons who dined at indoor or outdoor facilities, and didn’t rely on contact tracing.

The study, released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, analyzed 314 patients and found that those who tested positive for the virus were twice as likely to have eaten at a restaurant in the previous two weeks as those who tested negative.

“We want people to understand as society opens back up where the risks are for Covid-19,” said Dr. Wesley Self, a doctor and researcher at Vanderbilt University and an author of the study.

Dr. Self said he believed in retrospect that the researchers should have made the distinction between indoor and outdoor dining.

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo announced on Wednesday that New York City would lift its prohibition on indoor dining on Sept. 30, allowing restaurants to operate at one-quarter indoor capacity. In July, the governor and Mayor Bill de Blasio halted a plan to resume indoor dining, citing concerns about a resurgence of the virus. (The conditions of outdoor dining are considered less risky.)

Last month, data from a number of states and cities showed that community outbreaks had centered on restaurants and bars. Contact tracers in Maryland found that 12 percent of new cases in July were traced to restaurants, and in Colorado, 9 percent of outbreaks were traced to bars and restaurants. The patients in the new study were treated at 11 hospitals in California, Colorado, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Utah and Washington.

Some researchers have urged caution in interpreting the findings of the new C.D.C. study.

“The way folks have interpreted this study is that going to a restaurant causes Covid,” said Zack Cooper, an associate professor of public health at the Yale School of Public Health. “That isn’t what this type of study is designed to show. What this shows is people who have Covid were more likely to have been in restaurants.”

Dr. Cooper said dining in restaurants was probably associated with increased risk because it puts people in proximity with others who are not exercising caution in limiting their exposure to the virus. He said researchers needed to be careful in studying the risks of common activities, given the challenges for the general public in interpreting statistical findings.

In an interview with CNN on Friday, Dr. Fauci was asked what the study’s findings meant for people who wanted to dine out. He said that he would not completely rule out going to a restaurant.

“But,” he said, “restaurant owners should be aware that, particularly if you’re in a zone where you have a significant degree of infection, you either do outdoor dining or if it’s indoor, you don’t do it at 100 percent capacity.”

Canada reported zero deaths linked to Covid-19 in a 24-hour period on Friday night, according to government data, even as the number of new cases in the country has ticked slowly upward as restrictions ease and schools reopen for in-person classes.

There have been at least 135,600 confirmed coronavirus cases in Canada as of Friday evening, according to the government. The number of new cases being reported daily has fallen significantly from an early May peak of nearly 3,000 cases, and now averages a few hundred a day. But as of Thursday, the average number of new daily cases was up by nearly 50 percent compared with a few weeks earlier.

Four Canadian provinces — Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec — account for more than 4,000 of the 4,439 cases that the country has reported over the past week. Those provinces also accounted for all of the 23 deaths related to Covid-19 that were reported over the same period. This week, Ontario, Canada’s most populous province, said that it will take a four-week “pause” before it considers loosening restrictions or allowing further economic reopening.

Over all, at least 9,163 deaths in the country have been linked to Covid-19. Quebec accounts for more than half of them, with 5,774, followed by Ontario, with 2,813.

Canada has previously reported zero Covid-19 deaths in 24-hour periods, although measuring that can be imprecise because of delays in reporting. The average number of daily reported deaths over the past week is three.

By contrast, as of Thursday the average number of daily reported deaths over the past week in the United States was 702.

It began as a trickle of coronavirus infections as college students arrived for the fall semester. Soon that trickle became a stream, with campuses reporting dozens, and sometimes hundreds of new cases each day.

Now the stream feels like a flood. In just the past week, a New York Times survey has found, American colleges have recorded more than 36,000 additional infections, bringing the total of 88,000 cases since the pandemic began.

Not all those cases are new, and the increase is partly the result of more schools beginning to report the results of more testing. But The Times survey of 1,600 colleges also shows how widely the contagion has spread, with schools of every type and size, and in every state reporting infections.

Only about 60 of the campus cases have resulted in death — mostly of college staff members — and only a small number have resulted in hospitalizations. But public health experts say the rising number also underscores an emerging reality: Colleges and universities have, as a category, become hot spots for virus transmission, much as hospitals, nursing homes and meat packing plants were earlier.

Hoping to salvage some sense of normalcy — along with lost revenue from housing fees and out-of-state tuition — many schools invested heavily in health measures to bring at least some students back to campus.

But outbreaks have forced course correction after correction.

The State University of New York at Oneonta sent students home after the virus spun out of control in less than two weeks, with more than 500 cases. And the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign mounted one of the most comprehensive safety plans, requiring more than 40,000 students to be tested for the virus twice a week, and barring them from campus buildings without app verification that the latest test was negative. But, some students continued partying after they received a positive test result, and hundreds were infected.

A lockdown brought the number of new cases at the university down again. But its surge pushed its metro regions toward the top of the list of U.S. areas with most cases per capita, as did spikes at universities in Oxford, Miss., and Athens, Ga.

Officials in Oregon’s state corrections system this week began moving hundreds of inmates out of the path of the wildfires creeping toward some of their prisons. But the introduction of large groups of prisoners into different facilities may be exposing them to another risk — contracting the virus.

Juan Chavez, a lawyer with the Oregon Justice Resource Center, a nonprofit legal advocacy group, said that relocated inmates were sleeping on mattresses crammed close together, but it’s “picking your poison” between the virus and the fires. He added that he fears the relocated inmates could contribute to a superspreader event for the virus in the prisons.

But few other options exist for the Oregon Department of Corrections, which has evacuated four prisons so far.

Inmates will be “housed with others from their home institution whenever possible,” and officials are aware of the potential virus spread, said Jennifer Black, a spokeswoman for the prison system.

The virus has already ravaged the state prison population. In June, the governor commuted the sentences of 57 inmates who were vulnerable to the virus. There have been 829 confirmed cases in prison system facilities, including staff members and inmates, according to the department’s records. Six people have died.

At the Oregon State Penitentiary, 36 staff members and 143 inmates have tested positive.

Helene Cooper, a Pentagon correspondent with The New York Times, was selected to participate in a vaccine trial for Moderna, a biotech company based in Massachusetts. Ms. Cooper, who covered the Ebola outbreak for The Times in 2014, shared her experience in a personal essay. Following are some excerpts.

“I signed up for a Covid vaccine trial,” I texted a group of friends, all reporters with smart mouths on them. But one response gave me pause.

“I admire your dedication to the cause,” my friend Mark Mazzetti told me. But he was clear in his text: “You gotta be really careful given your underlying condition. You could be given a placebo and sent to hang out in hot spots.”

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I hadn’t thought of the placebo part of the vaccine trial when I signed up. I am a Type 1 diabetic — a chronic autoimmune disorder I have had since I was 15, with asthma to boot, so I am firmly in the high-risk category. That had been made clear to me by Dr. Fauci himself in early March when I ran into him in the green room for NBC’s “Meet the Press.”

“What happens if I get Covid?” I had asked him.

“I’m not saying you’re a dead duck,” he replied, “but I cannot stress enough that you really need to not get it.”

So last Wednesday, I arrived at George Washington University Hospital at the appointed time in all my triple-risk glory: Black woman, Type 1 diabetic, asthmatic. I hadn’t slept the night before.

France is facing a worrying surge in cases, the government said on Friday, warning that the new cases were rapidly increasing and that hospitals were seeing an uptick in admissions.

Many expected new restrictions, especially after the government’s scientific council said earlier this week that the authorities would have to take “difficult measures.”

But the authorities did not announce new rules, vowing instead to improve the country’s immense testing program — which has been plagued by delays in recent weeks — and urging the French to continue social distancing measures.

The country registered about 54,000 new cases over the past 7 days — less than Spain, but far more than other neighboring countries like Italy or Germany. Nearly 31,000 people in France have died of the virus.

On Thursday, there were nearly 10,000 new confirmed cases, a record since the beginning of the epidemic. The surge is due partly to widespread testing, but the positivity rate for those tests has also increased — it was at 5.4 percent this week, up from 1.5 in late July — meaning that the virus is picking up speed.

Jean Castex, the French prime minister, said in a televised address on Friday that authorities were particularly worried about a renewed increase in the number of hospitalizations, especially of elderly people.

“This shows there is no Maginot line,” said Mr. Castex, referring to national fortifications built in the 1930s. Even if the virus is still mostly spreading among younger people, he said, it “inevitably” ends up reaching more vulnerable segments of the population.

In other developments around the world:

  • Myanmar has locked down half of its largest city, Yangon, and halted travel between regions in an effort to halt the spread of the virus. Myanmar’s leader, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, urged the public to follow health protocols in a nationally televised address on Thursday. The number of confirmed cases has gone up fivefold in less than three weeks, reaching 2,422 on Friday, with 14 deaths, according to a Times database.

  • India again broke a record for daily new cases, reporting 97,750 on Saturday, according to a Times database. The previous record, set Friday, was 96,551.

  • North Korea has deployed crack troops along its border with a shoot-to-kill order to prevent smugglers from introducing the coronavirus into its isolated and malnourished population, the United States’ top general in South Korea, Gen. Robert B. Abrams, said on Thursday. North Korea insists that it has not confirmed a single case of Covid-19. But outside experts are skeptical, citing the country’s decrepit public health capabilities and the long border it shares with China, where the epidemic first erupted.

A series of studies released on Friday offered the strongest evidence yet that the coronavirus is surging again in Britain, suggesting that the country may be following other European nations in seeing significant new spikes of the virus.

Scientists from Imperial College London said that the prevalence of coronavirus infections doubled every eight days from late August to early September in England, a significant quickening of the spread.

The scientists tested a random sample of 150,000 people and estimated that the so-called reproduction number — a measure of how many people on average a single patient will infect — was 1.7, indicating a growing outbreak. An R number below 1 would indicate a dwindling outbreak.

The government’s own scientific advisory group offered a more conservative estimate of the virus’s spread — it said the R number was between 1 and 1.2 in Britain — but still said that “the epidemic is growing.”

The British government reported 3,539 new daily cases on Friday, lifting its seven-day average well over 2,500, a level last seen in May. Its total caseload has surpassed 361,000, with more than 41,600 deaths.

Heeding the surge, Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced this week that the government would ban gatherings of more than six people. But with students now returning to school and Britons socializing inside more as the weather cools, scientists said that might not be enough.

“This is a massive blow to the government’s strategy to contain the spread of Covid-19,” Simon Clarke, an associate professor at the University of Reading, said of the Imperial College London study.

Mr. Johnson has been encouraging people to go back to work, eat out at restaurants, patronize pubs and send children back to school. Many Britons have also remained resistant to wearing face masks in crowded places.

Britain’s new contact-tracing app will be introduced in England and Wales on Sept. 24, Mr. Johnson’s government announced on Friday. The government had previously been criticized over the long delay; earlier versions were scrapped months ago.

Halsey Beshears, Florida’s secretary for the Department of Business and Professional Regulation, announced on Twitter on Thursday that the state would allow bars to operate at half capacity starting Monday. He rescinded an executive order from June that had banned drinking at bars as the state experienced a surge.

Gov. Ron DeSantis, a Republican, had hinted earlier on Thursday that his administration would not only soon allow the reopening of bars and restaurants but also forbid future closures.

“I think that we probably need to just have it that everyone knows they’ll be able to operate,” he said. “The closures are just totally off the table, because it’s hard to plan if you think you have the sword of Damocles hanging over your head.”

On Friday, Mr. DeSantis announced that the state’s two biggest counties, Miami-Dade and Broward, would move to the second phase of reopening on Monday, paving the way for schools to bring students back into classrooms sooner than expected.

The mayor of Miami-Dade County, Carlos Gimenez, and the county’s schools superintendent, Alberto Carvalho, appeared with the governor at the news conference on Friday. Mr. Carvalho said he expects to make an announcement about physically opening schools before the end of the month; he had previously established a timeline to bring students back by Oct. 5.

About 51 percent of parents of public school students have told the district they want to send their children back, he said, adding that “six feet of distance is probably not going to be possible in many schools.”

Mr. Gimenez, whose county was hit hardest in the state, said that his administration would begin to look at businesses that could now reopen under certain restrictions, including movie theaters and bowling alleys, though he reiterated it would not include bars and nightclubs. On Wednesday, he said he did not foresee reopening them “until we get a vaccine.”

“We’re still not out of the woods yet, but we’re getting close,” he said Friday.

In Puerto Rico, Gov. Wanda Vázquez eased some of the island’s tight restrictions on Thursday, citing a recent drop in cases. Ms. Vázquez lifted a lockdown that had forced people to stay home on Sundays, and reopened beaches to everyone. She also authorized the reopening of gyms, movie theaters and casinos at 25 percent capacity.

Bars and nightclubs remain closed, and a nightly curfew will remain in effect.

The outbreak also altered a moment to honor the dead. Though the names of the victims resounded across the plaza, and bells tolled across New York as they have in years past, there was no stage in front of those who came to mourn.

Some of America’s most notable politicians attended, including Vice President Mike Pence and Joseph R. Biden Jr., the Democratic nominee for president, but all of them wore masks in addition to their customary memorial ribbons and lapel pins. They exchanged elbow bumps, then distanced themselves six feet apart as they stood for the national anthem.

It has been 19 years since passenger jets hijacked by terrorists slammed into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and crashed into a field in Shanksville, Pa. Nearly 3,000 lives were lost, some 2,700 of them in New York, in the deadliest attack in the country’s history.

The United States’ death toll from the pandemic has far exceeded that of Sept. 11, 2001. In New York City alone, more than 23,000 people have died of the virus.

In an opinion column published in USA Today on Thursday, eight top regulators at the Food and Drug Administration promised to uphold the scientific integrity of their work and defend the agency’s independence. The column warned that “if the agency’s credibility is lost because of real or perceived interference, people will not rely on the agency’s safety warnings.”

The pledge by career scientists in the federal government came amid mounting concerns over the role the White House has played in emergency approvals for coronavirus therapies, including convalescent plasma and the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine, which the agency later revoked.

The specter of political arm-twisting has grown as several drugmakers entered large late-stage vaccine trials this summer. President Trump told reporters on Monday that “we’re going to have a vaccine very soon, maybe even before a very special date.”

That timeline, framed around Election Day, has been widely challenged by the administration’s top health officials, who have said that a vaccine approval by early November was improbable.

The statement in USA Today was written in large part because of fears over political influence on the F.D.A., including from the White House, according to senior administration officials familiar with the effort.

Prospects for any additional stimulus to address the coronavirus pandemic’s devastating toll before the election darkened considerably on Thursday, when a whittled-down Republican plan failed in the Senate on a partisan vote.

Democrats voted unanimously to block the proposal from advancing, calling it inadequate to meet the mounting needs for federal aid, in the latest indication of a lack of political will to reach an agreement, even as critical federal aid for individuals and businesses has run dry.

It was a nearly party-line vote whose outcome was never in doubt. The proposal amounted to a fraction of the $1 trillion plan Republicans had offered in negotiations with Democrats, who in turn are demanding more than twice as much.

A failure to compromise would leave millions of jobless Americans in potentially dire straits, as they exhaust jobless benefits and states run out of additional funds that Mr. Trump steered to the unemployed by executive order last month. It would also strand a wide swath of small business owners who have endured steep drops in revenue, with little prospect of a return to normal levels for months to come.

“Along with a pandemic of Covid-19, we have a pandemic of politics,” Senator Pat Roberts, Republican of Kansas, said. “Looking to the House — and for that matter, our colleagues across the aisle — it’s a sort of a dead-end street.”

He spoke after the measure failed on a 52-to-47 vote, falling short of the 60 it would have needed to advance.

The new application will allow people to scan QR codes when they visit hospitality venues and will use Apple and Google’s technology for detecting other smartphones in the vicinity.

Matt Hancock, Britain’s health secretary, said in a statement on Friday that the app would be a vital tool for containing the spread of the coronavirus.

“We need to use every tool at our disposal to control the spread of the virus including cutting-edge technology,” he said. “The launch of the app later this month across England and Wales is a defining moment and will aid our ability to contain the virus at a critical time.”

What’s the fairest expectation of how bad the pandemic should have been in the United States?

In his Morning newsletter, David Leonhardt spoke with Donald McNeil, the New York Times reporter who has frequently appeared on “The Daily” podcast to talk about the coronavirus.

Mr. Leonhardt writes:

Donald makes a fascinating point: Don’t look only at snapshots, like a country’s per capita death toll. “It’s not fair to pick one point in time and say, ‘How are we doing?’” he writes. “You can only judge how well countries are doing when you add in the time factor” — that is, when the virus first exploded in a given place and what has happened since.

The pandemic, he adds, is like a marathon with staggered start times.

The virus began spreading widely in Europe earlier than in North America. Much of Europe failed to contain it at first and suffered terrible death tolls. The per capita toll in a few countries, like Britain, Italy and Spain, remains somewhat higher than in the U.S. But those countries managed to get the virus under control by the late spring. Their caseloads plummeted.

In the U.S., the virus erupted later — yet caseloads never plummeted. Almost every day for the past six months, at least 20,000 Americans have been diagnosed with the virus. “Europe learned the hard lesson and applied remedies,” as Donald says. “We did not, even though we had more warning.”

This chart makes the point:

When the pandemic hit, Americans vastly scaled back on preventive health, and there is little sign that this deferred care will be made up.

Vaccinations dropped by nearly 60 percent in April, and almost no one was getting a colonoscopy, according to new data from the nonprofit Health Care Cost Institute.

The data, drawn from millions of health insurance claims, shows a consistent pattern, whether it was prostate screenings or contraceptives: Preventive care declined drastically this spring and, as of late June, had not yet recovered to normal levels. Many types of such care were still down by a third at the start of this summer, the most recent data available shows, as Americans remained wary of visiting hospitals and medical offices.

Americans continued seeking care they couldn’t avoid — hospital admissions for childbirth, for example, held steady — but avoided care they could put off. More invasive preventive procedures, such as mammograms and colonoscopies, showed the greatest decline.

Colonoscopies, which are generally used to screen for colon cancer, declined by 88 percent in mid-April and were still 33 percent lower than normal at the end of June. Mammograms, which fell 77 percent at the height of the pandemic, are still down 23 percent.

Critical childhood vaccinations for hepatitis, measles, whooping cough and other diseases also declined significantly, a trend that had already begun to worry pediatricians earlier in the pandemic. Of particular concern, measles vaccinations fell 73 percent in mid-April and were still down 36 percent at the end of June.

But one preventive service stayed relatively steady through the pandemic: pregnancy-related ultrasounds. Those declined slightly in March and April but never fell more than 20 percent below 2019 levels. Insertions of IUDs, one of the most effective birth control methods, declined like other preventive care — raising the possibility of an increase in pregnancies in coming months.

Reporting was contributed by Sarah Almukhtar, Aurelien Breeden, Kenneth Chang, Choe Sang-Hun, Emily Cochrane, Abdi Latif Dahir, Marie Fazio, Emma G. Fitzsimmons, Michael Gold, Emma Goldberg, Peter S. Goodman, Sophie Hardach, Javier C. Hernández, Jonathan Huang, Mike Ives, Sarah Kliff, David Leonhardt, Dan Levin, Patricia Mazzei, Benjamin Mueller, Saw Nang, Richard C. Paddock, Roni Caryn Rabin, Campbell Robertson, Dana Rubinstein, Karan Deep Singh, Megan Specia, Jim Tankersley, Kate Taylor, Sui-Lee Wee and Noah Weiland.

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Covid-19 News: Live Updates

Quarantine rules are expanding around the world, but not in America. The virus is circulating in Gaza. Researchers in Hong Kong find that in rare cases, a person can get reinfected.Published Aug. 24, 2020Updated Aug. 28, 2020ImageKatie Stallings, a second grade teacher, set up her classroom before her students return to school at MacFarlane Park…

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

Quarantine rules are expanding around the world, but not in America. The virus is circulating in Gaza. Researchers in Hong Kong find that in rare cases, a person can get reinfected.

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Credit…Octavio Jones for The New York Times

A Florida judge ruled on Monday that the state’s requirement that public schools open their classrooms for in-person instruction violates the Florida constitution because it “arbitrarily disregards safety” and denies local school boards the ability to decide when students can safely return.

The ruling was a victory for the American Federation of Teachers, the nation’s second-largest teachers’ union, and one of its affiliates, the Florida Education Association. The unions sued Gov. Ron DeSantis and Richard Corcoran, the education commissioner, last month in the first lawsuit of its kind in the country.

The state’s order required that school districts give students the option to go back to school in person by Aug. 31 or risk losing crucial state funding. An exception was made only for Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, which have been the hardest hit by the coronavirus and plan to start the school year online.

“The districts have no meaningful alternative,” Judge Charles W. Dodson of the Leon County Circuit Court wrote of the rest of the state’s schools. “If an individual school district chooses safety, that is, delaying the start of schools until it individually determines it is safe to do so for its county, it risks losing state funding, even though every student is being taught.”

Later Monday, the state filed an appeal to the ruling, prompting an immediate stay.

“This fight has been, and will continue to be, about giving every parent, every teacher and every student a choice, regardless of what educational option they choose,” Mr. Corcoran said in a statement.

In Tampa, the state’s reopening order prevented the Hillsborough County school district from starting the school year with four weeks of online-only instruction, as the school board wanted to do. The Hillsborough board is scheduled to meet on Tuesday, although no vote is expected, a district spokeswoman said. The superintendent, Addison Davis, said in a statement after the ruling that the school system continued to plan to start classes on Aug. 31 with a choice of in-person or online instruction.

During a three-day hearing last week, the unions presented testimony from public health experts and teachers concerned about risking their health. One teacher said he would quit to avoid exposure to the virus. Another, who is quadriplegic, said he could not afford to leave his job, though his doctor had warned him that Covid-19 would threaten his life.

“In a pandemic, none of these things are great victories, but it is a reprieve for human life,” said Randi Weingarten, the president of the American Federation of Teachers. “It is a pushback on reckless disregard of human life. It is a pushback on politics overtaking safety and the science and the well-being of communities.”

Tracking the Coronavirus ›

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At a news conference on Sunday, President Trump announced the emergency authorization of the use of blood plasma for treatment of hospitalized Covid-19 patients. The president and two of his top health officials — Alex M. Azar II, the health and human services secretary; and Dr. Stephen M. Hahn, the commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration — highlighted the same statistic: that the treatment reduced Covid-19 deaths by 35 percent.

But scientists and experts, including one researcher who worked on the study cited by the officials, say that the framing and use of the statistic, which refers to a subset of a Mayo Clinic study, are misleading.

“For the first time ever, I feel like official people in communications and people at the F.D.A. grossly misrepresented data about a therapy,” said Dr. Walid Gellad, who leads the Center for Pharmaceutical Policy and Prescribing at the University of Pittsburgh.

The statistic in question was not mentioned in the official letter authorizing the treatment, the 17-page memo written by F.D.A. scientists about the treatment or in the Mayo Clinic’s analysis.

Some fear that the process of approving treatments and vaccines for the coronavirus has been politicized, and as data emerges from vaccine clinical trials, the safety of potentially millions of people will rely on the scientific judgment of the F.D.A. “That’s a problem if they’re starting to exaggerate data,” Dr. Gellad said.

Plasma has been touted by Mr. Trump as a promising cure for the coronavirus, with his administration funneling $48 million into a program with the Mayo Clinic to test infusions. Although there have been some positive signs that it can reduce deaths in Covid-19 patients, no randomized trials have shown that it works.

Dr. Hahn’s claim that 35 out of 100 sick Covid-19 patients would have been saved by receiving plasma appeared to be an overstatement, statisticians and scientists said.

Dr. Eric Topol, a professor of molecular medicine at Scripps Research in La Jolla, Calif., said that convalescent plasma has not yet shown the benefit that Dr. Hahn described — and that he should issue a correction.

On Monday night, after The New York Times published an article questioning the statistic, Dr. Hahn said on Twitter that the “criticism is entirely justified,” and clarified that his earlier statements imprecisely suggested an absolute reduction in risk, instead of the relative risk of a certain group of patients compared with another.

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Credit…Travis Dove for The New York Times

After tests and temperature checks, 336 Republican delegates representing 50 states, five territories and Washington, D.C., gathered in Charlotte, N.C., on Monday and officially renominated President Trump. It was the Republican National Convention’s first night, and the only in-person event of either political party’s quadrennial convention.

In a surprise speech, Mr. Trump accused his opponents of “using Covid to steal the election,” repeating claims that voting by mail was part of a plot to bring about his defeat in November.

Mr. Trump also criticized Roy Cooper, the Democratic governor of North Carolina, telling the crowd in Charlotte that Mr. Cooper and other Democratic governors had enacted virus restrictions simply to hurt his re-election chances and would end them after Election Day.

“You have a governor who is in a total shutdown mood,” he said. “I guarantee you on November 4, it will all open up.”

Multiple speakers, including the president, occasionally referred to the pandemic in the past tense, as the convention undertook a significant rewriting of the Trump administration’s pandemic response. There was a particular focus on Mr. Trump’s decision to ban travel from China in January.

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transcript

transcript

Trump Hosts Supporters at White House for Convention Segment

A portion of the Republican National Convention featured President Trump meeting with a small group of supporters in the White House.

“These are great, great people — doctors, nurses, firemen, policemen. We want to thank you all. You have been incredible, and we want to thank you and all of the millions of people that you represent. Thank you all very much. Great job. Tell me a little about your stories — how about we’ll start with you.” “I’m a postal worker, delivered to a senior community during Covid-19.” “Good — and we’re taking good care of our postal workers.” “Absolutely.” “That I can tell you.” “I own a small business in Ohio.” “Great —” “Hauling steel, mostly. You know, some of our customers actually made hospital beds with the material.” “Oh, wow — that’s fantastic.” “I’m also a nurse. I represent Genesis HealthCare, which is a skilled nursing facility —” “Oh, sure.” “— company. I want to thank you and your administration for all the supplies and support and funding that you’ve given the skilled nursing units. Without that we couldn’t do as well as we have done.” “I’m a police officer in Englewood, Colo., and I contracted Covid in late March and recovered.” “That means we don’t have to be afraid of you at all, right?” [laughing]

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A portion of the Republican National Convention featured President Trump meeting with a small group of supporters in the White House.CreditCredit…Republican National Convention

Later, Nikki Haley, Mr. Trump’s former U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, and the president’s eldest son, Donald Trump Jr., cast blame on China, where the virus was first detected.

“Before Communist China gave us the coronavirus, we were breaking economic records left and right,” Ms. Haley said. “The pandemic has set us back but not for long.”

Mr. Trump’s son said that the virus had hit the United States “courtesy of the Chinese Communist Party.” He praised his father for restricting travel from China, and for having “rallied the mighty American private sector to tackle this new challenge.”

“There’s more work to do but there is a light at the end of the tunnel,” the younger Mr. Trump said.

Outside the convention hall, public health officials in Mecklenburg County, which includes Charlotte, continue to fight to contain the virus, with an average of 1,100 new cases a day over the past week, according to a New York Times database.

Just six representatives from each state and territory were in the room where the speeches were given, masked and seated at a distance from one another. Vice President Mike Pence also spoke to the delegates, and Mr. Trump plans to appear every night during the convention.

Despite the precautions in place inside the convention hall, photographs of crowds gathered by the stage while Mr. Trump spoke showed people failing to practice social distancing. Some wore masks and some did not.

More than 40,350 new cases and more than 500 new deaths were reported in the United States on Monday, according to a New York Times database.

EDUCATION ROUNDUP

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Credit…Kansas State Board of Education, via Associated Press

The video call service Zoom reported partial outages on Monday morning, causing problems on the first day of remote classes for many schools in the United States.

Zoom said it began receiving reports of users being unable to start or join meetings at about 8:50 a.m. on the East Coast, as working and school hours began. About two hours later, the company said that it was “deploying a fix across our cloud,” and at about 12:45 p.m. it said “everything should be working properly now.”

As the pandemic has kept students out of classrooms and workers out of offices, Zoom has quickly become critical infrastructure for many school districts, companies and local governments. The partial disruption in service, which lasted approximately four hours in some areas, adds another element to the contentious debate over how to safely and effectively resume learning this fall.

The Atlanta school district, which serves about 50,000 students, was among those affected by the outage. And students and professors at Penn State University reported widespread problems on campus on Monday morning, as did Michigan’s Supreme Court, which has conducted hearings online since the pandemic began.

Another online learning platform, Canvas, also experienced technical issues on Monday. Cory Edwards, a spokesman for the company, said the system had slowed down for about 75 percent of its U.S. customers for about a half-hour on Monday morning. The problem probably resulted from heavy usage as many students returned to school this week, he said.

The website DownDetector, which tracks outages at social media companies and tech companies, showed significant Zoom outages in major cities around the country, including New York, Washington, Atlanta, Chicago, St. Louis and San Francisco. The site reported more than 15,000 outages by about 10 a.m. Eastern time.

Many courthouses also rely on Zoom to conduct hearings, city councils govern through virtual meetings, and the police face reporters in video news conferences.

Here are other key education developments:

  • The University of Alabama said that 531 cases had been identified among students, faculty and staff on its Tuscaloosa campus since classes resumed there on Aug. 19. It said the total number of cumulative cases over that period, including infections on other campuses in the university’s system, was 566.

  • The University of Southern California said it had identified 43 new cases in the past week, all of them related to “off-campus living environments.” The university called it “an alarming increase” and said that more than 100 students were under two-week quarantine because of exposure to the virus. It warned students that “every surface, every interaction where you share close contact or remove your face covering, can pose a risk to yourself and your friends.”

  • Following months of pressure to set up outdoor classrooms in New York City, Mayor Bill de Blasio said Monday that principals can apply by this Friday to create outdoor classes in their schoolyards. The city’s public school system, the nation’s largest, is scheduled to reopen in just under three weeks in a hybrid model, leaving schools little time to move classroom infrastructure outdoors. The city will prioritize 27 neighborhoods badly hit by the virus with schools that do not have usable outdoor space. The mayor said that outdoor learning “won’t work every day” because of bad weather, but that it was still a good alternative for many schools.

  • The University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, became the latest college to find a significant number of students testing positive for coronavirus upon their return to campus, university and county health officials said on Monday. The university said it had recorded 326 positive results since Aug. 15. On its website, the university said that it has conducted more than 87,000 tests since early July, with an average positive rate of .74 percent over the past five days — considered quite low. The college began modified in-person instruction on Monday.

  • More than 730 American colleges and universities have announced at least one case on campus among students, faculty or staff since the beginning of the pandemic, according to a New York Times database. Among the latest: Millikin University in Decatur, Ill., which reported its first case on Monday, the first day of fall classes.

  • The University of Kansas, where fall classes began Monday in Lawrence, issued 14-day public health bans to two fraternities on Sunday for violating university policies on mask wearing and social distancing. The university’s chancellor said in a statement that Kappa Sigma and Phi Kappa Psi were ordered not to host any event without approval from the university.

  • The University of Nebraska in Lincoln announced Sunday that students at the Kappa Alpha Theta sorority have been placed under quarantine after five cases were identified.

GLOBAL ROUNDUP

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Credit…Apu Gomes/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

As many countries maintain or even tighten their quarantine requirements for international arrivals, the United States is moving in the opposite direction.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention revised its guidance for travelers on Friday, dropping its recommendation that anyone coming from overseas or a state with a high infection rate should self-quarantine for 14 days. Travelers are now advised only to “follow state, territorial, tribal and local recommendations or requirements.”

A number of states have their own quarantine policies in place, but with the exception of a few places like Hawaii, they are rarely enforced.

U.S. quarantine policies stand in stark contrast to those of many other countries and regions — including Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa and South Korea — that have strictly monitored international arrivals for months. Travelers are sometimes required to stay in designated hotels or government quarantine facilities, wear electronic tracking devices or report their temperatures daily, with violations punishable by fines or imprisonment.

Many of those rules were implemented after some travelers carrying the virus contributed to fresh outbreaks in places where it had been mostly under control. Some countries, including Australia, South Africa and Spain, have even restricted or banned travel between states and provinces for the same reason.

European countries that had loosened their travel and entry restrictions earlier this summer are now experiencing a surge in cases and reinstituting quarantine requirements for people coming from certain countries. Britain recently added Belgium, France, the Netherlands and other countries to its quarantine list, while France is planning to impose a reciprocal quarantine requirement for visitors from Britain.

The C.D.C. also updated its testing guidelines on Sunday to say that people who have been in contact with someone who tested positive for the coronavirus for at least 15 minutes, been in a high transmission area or attended a large gathering “do not necessarily need a test.” Studies indicate that the virus can spread from a seemingly healthy person, and that a person may spread the virus before showing symptoms.

In other global news:

  • As Hong Kong on Tuesday announced plans to begin easing its social distancing rules, the city’s leader, Carrie Lam, said that criticism by health experts of a new, Beijing-backed coronavirus testing program was a “politically calculated” effort to smear the Chinese government. Some of those experts say the plan is a waste of resources, while activists fear it could lead to the harvesting of DNA samples for China’s surveillance apparatus — accusations that local officials deny.

  • A tsunami of job cuts is about to hit Europe as companies prepare to carry out sweeping downsizing plans to offset a collapse in business. Government-backed furlough programs that have helped keep about a third of Europe’s work force financially secure are set to unwind in the coming months. As many as 59 million jobs are at risk of cuts in hours or pay, temporary furloughs or permanent layoffs, especially in industries like transportation and retail, according to a study by McKinsey & Company.

  • For 40 days, millions of people in Urumqi, the capital of the Xinjiang region in western China, have been unable to leave their homes because of a sweeping lockdown to fight a virus resurgence. Now, with the outbreak seemingly under control but the restrictions still largely in place, many residents say they are being confined to their homes unnecessarily and denied access to critical services like health care. The ruling Communist Party has been widely criticized in recent years for a harsh crackdown on the region’s Muslim minority.

  • The United Nations said Monday that up to 100 million jobs directly reliant on international tourism are at risk because of the pandemic and that revenue generated by the global tourist industry could fall by as much as $1.2 trillion this year. U.N. officials, who have called the pandemic the biggest challenge in the organization’s 75-year existence, also said in the report that some of the smallest countries are particularly vulnerable, as tourism represents a large chunk of their economic output.

  • Bali, Indonesia’s leading tourist destination, has abandoned its plan to allow foreign tourists starting Sept. 11, Gov. I Wayan Koster announced, and will wait at least until the end of the year before opening to them. Bali’s economy contracted 11 percent during the second quarter, with about 2,700 tourism workers laid off and another 74,000 on unpaid leave, the governor said.

  • Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern of New Zealand extended a lockdown in Auckland, New Zealand’s largest city, until Sunday night. The restrictions had been set to expire on Wednesday, but Ms. Ardern said the extra time was necessary to ensure that a virus cluster had been brought under control. Eight new confirmed or probable cases were announced on Monday, bringing the total to 101.

  • The first volunteer was inoculated with a “made in Italy” vaccine on Monday at Spallanzani hospital in Rome, which specializes in infectious diseases. The vaccine is produced by ReiThera, a biotechnology company based near Rome but headquartered in Switzerland.

  • Health authorities in France said a virus outbreak at a nudist camp in the southern resort town of Le Cap d’Agde was “very worrying.” More than 140 people have tested positive in the town, the Agence Régionale de Santé (ARS), France’s health agency, said on Sunday, and 310 more are awaiting results

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Credit…Mohammed Abed/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Authorities in the blockaded Gaza Strip announced the first coronavirus cases transmitted through the community on Monday, raising concerns that the pandemic could spread widely in the densely populated and impoverished coastal enclave.

Before Monday’s announcement, authorities had found infections only at quarantine facilities, where all returning travelers were required to quarantine for three weeks and pass two tests before being permitted to leave.

Ashraf al-Qidra, a spokesman for the Hamas-run Health Ministry, told a news conference that four people in the Maghazi refugee camp in central Gaza tested positive for Covid-19, while noting officials were carrying out epidemiological investigations.

Mr. Qidra said that authorities tested the four individuals after learning they had been in contact with a resident of Gaza who tested positive for the disease at a hospital in East Jerusalem.

Salama Maroof, the head of the Hamas-operated government media office, said that the entire territory would be placed under curfew for 48 hours.

“We call on everyone to exercise the greatest degree of carefulness, stay in their homes and follow the health measures,” he said at the news conference.

Early Tuesday morning, police cars were seen driving around Gaza using loudspeakers to call on residents to remain in their homes.

Experts have warned that Gaza’s health sector, already devastated by years of war and conflict, lacked the resources to deal with a widespread outbreak.

Gerald Rockenschaub, the head of the World Health Organization’s mission, said medical institutions carry only about 100 adult ventilators, most of which are already in use.

As of early Tuesday, 113 virus cases had been recorded in Gaza and only a single fatality. But only about 17,000 tests have been conducted during the pandemic, according to the Hamas-run Health Ministry, meaning some cases could have gone undetected.

The small number of cases relative to the tens of thousands in Israel and the West Bank has largely been seen as a result of the coastal enclave’s isolation and Hamas’s strict quarantine policy for returning travelers.

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Credit…Alex Atack for The New York Times

Across England, in numbers that travel businesses say they have rarely seen before, lockdown-freed Britons are not only staying close to home this vacation season but spending it in motor homes, campers, campsites and glampsites. Vacationers are turning to camping as the holiday of choice for some social distancing in the great outdoors.

“For the first time in the U.K., owning a caravan is kind of cool,” said Gareth Mills, a 38-year-old father who lives on the English seaside, referring to big, boxy campers or motor homes. “Some of my parents’ friends who are caravan club enthusiasts, they are very smug at the moment.”

Hotels have largely reopened in England, but many of them are at 30 to 40 percent occupancy, with popular areas such as Cornwall and elsewhere in the southwest faring better, said Patricia Yates, a director at the tourism organization VisitBritain.

Finding a spot for a caravan or tent may be more competitive, as demand has surged. During a recent weekend, Pitchup.com, a booking site for camping spots, recorded 6,100 bookings, almost double the amount from the same weekend in 2019.

Camping has deep roots in Britain. The man considered the father of modern camping, Thomas Hiram Holding, was a traveling London tailor whose 1908 how-to, “The Camper’s Handbook,” documents the joys of self-reliance and getting away from it all, inspiring generations. About the same time, the Boy Scouts were started in Britain, followed by the Girl Guides a couple of years later.

Caravan parks across Britain have been flooded with bookings for the traditional summer period and into the fall, according to the National Caravan Council, an industry group. Parkdean Resorts, which operates 67 parks across the country, reported a 140 percent rise from last year at its parks in Devon.

Huw Pendleton, the managing director of Celtic Holiday Parks in Wales, said he hadn’t seen anything like it in his two decades in the industry.

“We’re sold out pretty much through to September, with little or no availability now this season for the top-end lodges and glamping with hot tubs,” he said.

U.S. ROUNDUP

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With a federal eviction moratorium coming to an end in the United States, legal aid lawyers say they are preparing to defend renters in housing court.

The fourth-month moratorium followed by a 30-day notice period protected about 12 million tenants living in qualifying properties. Local moratoriums in some states have protected others not covered by the federal law.

For tenants, especially those with limited means, having a lawyer can be the difference between being evicted and being able to stay, but tenants in housing courts rarely have legal representation. Surveys in several big cities over the years have found that at least 80 percent of landlords, but fewer than 10 percent of tenants, tend to have lawyers.

The president’s recent executive order on assistance to renters doesn’t offer much immediate hope for people facing eviction; it merely directs federal agencies to consider what they could do using existing authority and budgets.

“Tenants are not equipped to represent themselves, and eviction court places them on an uneven playing field,” said Ellie Pepper of the National Housing Resource Center.

Demand for legal assistance with housing issues is on the rise in states where local moratoriums have ended. “Our caseloads haven’t yet exploded, because the courts just started hearing cases that were pending before the pandemic struck,” said Lindsey Siegel, a lawyer with Atlanta Legal Aid. “But it’s coming.”

Elsewhere in the United States:

  • Louisiana shut down its coronavirus testing sites on Monday as the state braced for two tropical storms, Marco and Laura, in quick succession. Hospitals and urgent care facilities can still perform tests, said Kevin Litten, a spokesman for the Louisiana Department of Health. The shutdown of the state sites, and any power outages the storms cause, will probably lead to “some kind of disruption in data collection,” Mr. Litten said, followed by a jump in cases when testing resumes afterward. Similar effects were seen after Tropical Storm Isaias, which disrupted testing in Florida and the Carolinas early this month. Coastal Louisiana is among the hardest-hit areas of a state that has recorded at least 143,000 coronavirus cases and nearly 4,750 deaths, according to a New York Times database.

  • Joseph R. Biden Jr. and Senator Kamala Harris will be tested regularly for Covid-19 as Election Day approaches, the Biden campaign said on Monday, a day after a senior Biden official said Mr. Biden had not yet been tested. The Biden team said that “with the potential of additional events” over the remainder of the campaign, it had increased its health protocols. Staff members who interact with Mr. Biden and Ms. Harris will also be tested regularly, and the campaign said it would announce publicly if either candidate ever has a confirmed case of coronavirus.

  • The Trump administration tied billions of dollars in badly needed coronavirus medical funding this spring to hospitals’ cooperation with a private vendor collecting data for a new Covid-19 database that bypassed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The office of the health secretary, Alex M. Azar II, laid out the requirement in an April 21 email obtained by The New York Times that instructed hospitals to make a one-time report of their Covid-19 admissions and intensive care unit beds to TeleTracking Technologies, a company in Pittsburgh whose $10.2 million, five-month government contract has drawn scrutiny on Capitol Hill.

  • Louis DeJoy, the postmaster general, defended his record on Monday, as he testified before the House Oversight Committee on Monday. He said he told some of Mr. Trump’s advisers that the president’s repeated attacks on mail-in voting were “not helpful.” Watch the hearing live as lawmakers raise concerns about postal changes that could complicate mail-in voting.

  • Representative Jenniffer González-Colón, Puerto Rico’s nonvoting delegate to Congress, said on Monday that she had tested positive for the coronavirus, a week after the island’s Aug. 16 primary drew politicians to many indoor events. “I think it was a mistake on my part to be in a closed environment,” she said on Facebook Live. Ms. González-Colón, a member of the New Progressive Party, which supports Puerto Rican statehood, was not the only party member to test positive. Among the others were the House speaker, the Senate majority leader and two top aides to the party’s nominee for governor.

  • With the 2020 census into its final stage, more than one in three people hired as census takers have quit or failed to show up. And with 38 million households still uncounted, state and local officials are raising concerns that many poor and minority households will be left out of the count. The coronavirus and rising mistrust of the government on the part of hard-to-reach groups like immigrants and Latinos already have made this census challenging. But another issue has upended it: an order last month to finish the count a month early, guaranteeing that population figures will be delivered to the White House while President Trump is still in office.

  • After a cripplingly slow vote count in New York’s June primary, marred by thousands of disqualified ballots, Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo said on Monday that he would sign a series of executive orders to make it easier for voters to cast valid absentee ballots in November. The orders will require local officials to “take steps to be ready to start counting votes ASAP,” after the Nov. 3 election. The governor also ordered a redesign of ballot-return envelopes to make it clear where they should be signed, addressing a common reason for disqualification.

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Credit…Francesca Volpi for The New York Times

In an attempt to limit a resurgence of the coronavirus, Italy has banned dancing in nightclubs and outdoor dance halls.

As in other countries, new cases in Italy are being driven by young people, with several clusters traced to nightclubs crowded with maskless patrons. Yet the new rules aimed at stopping young people from gathering en masse have also swept up older Italians for whom an evening at the dance hall is a cherished part of life.

The Italian government’s decree on dancing, issued on Aug. 16, made no distinction between packed, sweaty clubs blaring reggaeton and sedate community centers where people swirl in pairs to accordion-driven waltzes.

Many regulars at Caribe, an outdoor dance hall in Legnago that caters to an older clientele, said they understood that the government was trying to protect the country — and people their age in particular. But they didn’t understand why they could no longer hold their partners on the dance floor while bars, beaches, amateur soccer courts and gyms stayed open.

“It was good to close down nightclubs — teenagers just don’t get it,” said Raffaele Leardini, 72, who was so happy when the club reopened in July that he cried. “But here you have people with a brain and a mask.”

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Credit…Ina Fassbender/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

This spring, the idea that the overwhelming majority of domestic soccer leagues in Europe might be able to finish their seasons — and that a new European champion might be crowned — seemed a distant, fanciful one.

On Sunday night in Lisbon, though, Bayern Munich won the Champions League, bringing the curtain down on the 2019-20 campaign. European soccer made it through.

That it did is not only a testament to the progress their countries made against the virus, but also to the willingness of thousands of players to observe some of the toughest controls imposed on any individuals in any industry.

The Bundesliga — the first major sports league to return — blazed the trail. Before resuming play in May, the German league issued each of its players a handbook containing precise instructions on “private hygiene,” guidance that in some cases went above and beyond the advice issued by the government to the public.

The Bundesliga’s rules were as stringent, and comprehensive, as possible, and governed almost every aspect of how players lived. Hand towels were to be used once only, for example, and to be washed at 140 degrees Fahrenheit as soon as they were damp.

In other sports news:

  • Usain Bolt, the Jamaican sprinter who won eight gold medals over the course of three Olympics, has tested positive and is isolating at his home in Jamaica. He celebrated turning 34 on Friday at a surprise party attended by, among others, his girlfriend, his newborn daughter and the prominent soccer players Raheem Sterling and Leon Bailey. Videos posted by the music news outlet Urban Islandz showed attendees dancing near one another without wearing masks. Jamaica has recently had a spike in cases.

  • When 11 National Football League teams were notified over the weekend that a total of 77 people, including players and staff members, had apparently tested positive, they scrambled to respond, holding players out of practice and rescheduling training sessions. But the results were all false positives.

  • In New York, school-sponsored sports that are considered “lower risk,” including tennis, soccer, cross country, field hockey and swimming, may practice and play with limits starting Sept. 21 statewide, the governor said Monday. Teams may not travel to play outside of the school’s region or contiguous regions or counties until Oct. 19. Sports with more physical contact that are considered “higher risk,” including football, wrestling, rugby and hockey, may begin practicing with limits but cannot play until a later date or Dec. 31.

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Credit…Miguel Candela/EPA, via Shutterstock

A 33-year-old man was infected a second time with the coronavirus more than four months after his first bout, the first documented case of so-called reinfection, researchers in Hong Kong reported Monday.

The finding was not unexpected, especially given the millions of people who have been infected worldwide, experts said. And the man had no symptoms the second time, suggesting that even though the prior exposure did not prevent the reinfection, his immune system kept the virus somewhat in check.

“The second infection was completely asymptomatic — his immune response prevented the disease from getting worse,” said Akiko Iwasaki, an immunologist at Yale University who was not involved with the work but reviewed the report at The New York Times’s request. “It’s kind of a textbook example of how immunity should work.”

People who do not have symptoms may still spread the virus to others, however, underscoring the importance of vaccines, Dr. Iwasaki said. In the man’s case, she added, “natural infection created immunity that prevented disease but not reinfection.”

“In order to provide herd immunity, a potent vaccine is needed to induce immunity that prevents both reinfection and disease,” Dr. Iwasaki said.

Doctors have reported several cases of presumed reinfection in the United States and elsewhere, but none of those cases have been confirmed with rigorous testing. Recovered people are known to carry viral fragments for weeks, which can lead to positive test results in the absence of live virus.

But the Hong Kong researchers sequenced the virus from both of the man’s infections and found significant differences, suggesting that the patient had been infected a second time.

The study is to be published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases. The Times obtained the manuscript from the University of Hong Kong.

The man’s first case was diagnosed on March 26, and he had only mild symptoms. He later tested negative for the virus twice and had no detectable antibodies after that first bout. He was positive again for the coronavirus on a saliva test on Aug. 15 after a trip to Spain via the United Kingdom. The man had picked up a strain that was circulating in Europe in July and August, the researchers said.

His infections were clearly caused by different versions of the coronavirus, Dr. Kelvin Kai-Wang To, a clinical microbiologist at the University of Hong Kong, said: “Our results prove that his second infection is caused by a new virus that he acquired recently, rather than prolonged viral shedding.”

Common cold coronaviruses are known to cause reinfections in less than a year, but experts had hoped that the new coronavirus might behave more like its cousins SARS and MERS, which seemed to produce protection lasting a few years.

It’s still unclear how common reinfection from the new coronavirus might be, because few researchers have sequenced the virus from each infection.

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Credit…Hannah Foslien/Getty Images

When 11 National Football League teams were notified over the weekend that a total of 77 people, including players and staff members, had apparently tested positive, they scrambled to respond, holding players out of practice and rescheduling training sessions.

Then on Monday came word from the testing lab: Never mind.

The results were all false positives, BioReference Laboratories said in a news release on Monday, citing “isolated contamination during test preparation” at one of its facilities in New Jersey.

“All individuals impacted have been confirmed negative and informed,” Dr. Jon R. Cohen, BioReference’s executive chairman, said in the news release.

N.F.L. officials said on Sunday that the affected clubs were following contact tracing, isolation and rescheduling protocols that were outlined by the league and players’ association. Among the 11 affected teams were the Minnesota Vikings, Chicago Bears and Buffalo Bills.

Eight Vikings athletes with false positives watched team meetings virtually on Sunday, unable to attend practice. The New York Jets, Cleveland Browns and Bears all rescheduled training sessions before getting the all clear; the Pittsburgh Steelers, Philadelphia Eagles and Detroit Lions held out players who had falsely tested positive.

The league’s regular season is expected to start Sept. 10.

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Credit…Sue-Lin Wong/Reuters

For 40 days, millions of people in the western Chinese city of Urumqi have been unable to leave their homes after the authorities put in place a sweeping lockdown to fight a resurgence of the coronavirus.

Now, with the outbreak seemingly under control but the restrictions still largely in place, many residents of Urumqi, the capital of the Xinjiang region, are lashing out at the government. They say they are being unnecessarily confined to their homes and denied access to critical services like health care.

“Is this a prison or cage?” one user wrote on Weibo, a popular social media site. “Is this prevention or suppression?”

The mounting anger poses a challenge for the ruling Communist Party, which is trying to hold up its handling of the epidemic as a model for the world. The party has long taken a harsh approach in Xinjiang, and in recent years has been widely criticized for leading a draconian crackdown on the region’s Muslim minority.

The lockdown in Urumqi, employing many of the same extreme measures used in Wuhan, began in mid-July as dozens of people fell ill with the virus. In recent weeks, locally transmitted cases have dwindled; there have been no such cases for eight days, officials say.

As anger mounted online, the authorities in Urumqi, a city of 3.5 million, on Monday said they would ease restrictions in some districts, allowing residents to leave their homes and walk inside their apartment complexes, according to Chinese news reports. Officials did not say when the full lockdown would be lifted.

After cases surged in June and July, the number of new reported U.S. cases began to level off, then drop, though the infection rate remains one of the world’s highest.

Of the states that are driving the decrease, all have at least some local mask mandates. And most have paused or reversed statewide reopening policies, again closing bars, gyms and theaters.

Many of the states with the biggest decreases per million people also had some of the country’s worst outbreaks in July.

Experts said that the drop in reported cases could not be attributed to the recent drop in testing volume. They explained that decreased hospitalizations and a lower share of positive tests indicated that the spread had most likely slowed.

A July surge in Florida affected young people in particular. Statewide bar closures following earlier reopenings and local mask mandates are among the policies that have helped reverse the trend, said Mary Jo Trepka, the chair of the Florida International University epidemiology department. Deaths were greater in July for residents under 65 than for those over 90.

And though Florida is doing better now, the state did surpass 600,000 cases on Sunday.

Arizona and Louisiana have also seen cases drop after taking mask mandates and other measures came into force.

KEY DATA OF THE DAY

Officials in Connecticut have issued a public health warning for the city of Danbury, urging residents to stay home when possible and limit gatherings after new cases jumped sharply there in the first 20 days of August.

Danbury, a city of about 84,000 people near the New York border, reported 178 new cases in that time, the state said, more than quadruple the figure for the prior two weeks.

The state’s public health department now recommends that residents not attend large church services or outdoor gatherings, or any gathering indoors with people other than those they live with.

“It does worry us that the number has gone up quite a bit,” Gov. Ned Lamont said at a news conference on Monday afternoon, referring to the share of positive test results in Danbury. He also urged people to self-quarantine, wear face coverings, social distance and get tested.

In a statement on Friday, officials said that many new cases in Danbury appeared linked to recent domestic and international travel. Connecticut currently requires travelers from dozens of states and two territories to quarantine for 14 days upon arrival.

Danbury was among the state’s hardest-hit places earlier this year; Connecticut’s first confirmed case worked at Danbury Hospital.

Danbury’s public schools will start the year with distance learning because of the outbreak, the superintendent said in a letter posted to Facebook on Monday.

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The Indonesian island of Bali, which has seen a steady increase in the number of its coronavirus cases, has abandoned its plan to allow tourists from other countries starting Sept. 11, the governor announced.

The island, Indonesia’s most important tourist destination, will wait at least until the end of the year before opening to foreign visitors, said the governor, I Wayan Koster, in a statement released on Saturday.

“The situation in Indonesia is not conducive to allowing international tourists to visit Indonesia, including to visit Bali,” he said.

In explaining his reversal, Mr. Koster noted that many countries are not allowing their citizens to travel overseas, including Australia, which has long been a major source of visitors to Bali.

The governor said Bali’s economy contracted 11 percent during the second quarter of the year. About 2,700 tourism workers have been laid off and another 74,000 are on unpaid leave, he said. Many others have had their hours reduced and are working part time, tourism operators say.

With Bali’s tourism economy devastated, many hotel workers have returned to their home villages where they can help their families grow food. Some also fish or collect clams and shrimp. But workers from neighboring islands, who don’t have access to farmland in Bali, are struggling to feed themselves and rely in part on assistance from aid groups.

Bali has been trying to attract domestic tourists to compensate for the loss of foreign visitors. But many Indonesian tourists would be likely to come from virus hot spots like Jakarta, the capital, and its neighboring province East Java, compounding Bali’s health problems.

Bali had reported 4,576 cases and 52 deaths as of Monday. Indonesia has recorded at least 153,000 cases and almost 7,000 deaths, according to a New York Times database. Some experts, citing Indonesia’s low testing rate, say that the actual number of cases is much higher.

In addition, Mr. Koster has been among the Indonesian officials who have promoted quack cures and misinformation about the virus. His recommended remedy: inhaling the steam from boiled arak, a traditional alcohol made from coconuts.

Reporting was contributed by Geneva Abdul, Iyad Abuheweila, Liz Alderman, Maggie Astor, Gillian R. Brassil, Chelsea Brasted, Emma Bubola, Marie Fazio, Sheri Fink, Claire Fu, Christoph Fuhrmans, Matthew Goldstein, Maggie Haberman, Ethan Hauser, Javier C. Hernández, Mike Ives, Jennifer Jett, Annie Karni, Andrew E. Kramer, Sharon LaFraniere, Théophile Larcher, Lauren Leatherby, Apoorva Mandavilli, Patricia Mazzei, Jesse McKinley, Claire Moses, Richard C. Paddock, Tariq Panja, Elisabetta Povoledo, Adam Rasgon, Frances Robles, Amanda Rosa, Eliza Shapiro, Dera Menra Sijabat, Rory Smith, Sheryl Gay Stolberg, Eileen Sullivan, Katie Thomas, Elaine Yu, Alan Yuhas and Albee Zhang.

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Covid-19 News: Live Updates

Notre Dame is temporarily moving classes online to control an outbreak.The University of Notre Dame announced on Tuesday that it would move to online instruction for at least the next two weeks in an attempt to control a growing coronavirus outbreak and would shut down the campus entirely if those measures failed to stop the…

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

The University of Notre Dame announced on Tuesday that it would move to online instruction for at least the next two weeks in an attempt to control a growing coronavirus outbreak and would shut down the campus entirely if those measures failed to stop the spread.

“If these steps are not successful, we will have to send students home, as we did last spring,” Notre Dame’s president, the Rev. John I. Jenkins, said in a video address to students, noting that he had been inclined to take that step before consulting with health officials.

The school will also close public spaces on campus and restrict dormitories to residents.

On Tuesday, the school reported that at least 147 people on campus had tested positive since students began returning on Aug. 3 for the start of classes a week later. Eighty of those confirmed cases were added on Tuesday.

“The virus is a formidable foe,” Mr. Jenkins said. “For the past week, it has been winning.”

On Monday, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill became the first large university in the country to shut down classes after students had returned. The school moved all undergraduate courses online after 177 students tested positive and another 349 students were forced to quarantine because of possible exposure.

U.N.C., with 30,000 students, started classes on Aug. 10, the same day that courses resumed at Notre Dame, a campus of 8,600 students near South Bend, Ind. Notre Dame tested all of its students before they returned to campus, with 33 positive results.

On Tuesday, Ithaca College in upstate New York said that it would extend remote learning through the fall semester, despite initial plans to bring students back to campus in waves starting this month. In a statement, Shirley M. Collado, the president of the college, called the reversal “an agonizing decision” but said that “bringing students here, only to send them back home, would cause unnecessary disruption in the continuity of their academic experience.”

Michigan State’s president sent a letter Tuesday telling undergraduate students who had planned to live in campus housing to stay home. He said the university would make all of its courses available online before school starts in two weeks, with exceptions for some colleges and graduate students. And Virginia Tech’s president, Tim Sands, sent a letter to students pleading with them to be responsible or risk outbreaks like those on other campuses.

Across the United States, Greek life has come under particular scrutiny amid reports of outbreaks at fraternities and sororities. On Tuesday, health officials in Riley County, Kan., reported a new outbreak of cases associated with the Phi Delta Theta fraternity at Kansas State University — 13 members tested positive — and recommended quarantine for anyone who had been in contact with those infected.

In the last few days, widely circulated images of young people congregating without masks near campus in Tuscaloosa, Ala., home of the University of Alabama, and around Dahlonega, Ga., home of the University of North Georgia, have raised concerns about students’ cavalier attitudes to social distancing measures

A Notre Dame spokesman said a significant number of its cases were connected to two off-campus parties where students, mostly seniors, did not wear masks or practice social distancing. Most of those who have tested positive live in off-campus housing, the spokesman, Paul Brown, said.

Both North Carolina and Notre Dame said athletic teams were unaffected. Notre Dame is ordinarily an independent in football but is planning to play this fall in the Atlantic Coast Conference, which also counts North Carolina as a member. Unlike the Pac-12 and the Big Ten, the A.C.C. has not yet abandoned its fall season.

Beyond the immediate matter of whether sports like football should be played this autumn, this week’s approach by North Carolina could ultimately factor into debates over players’ rights and whether the hyphen in “student-athlete” might be more properly replaced with “or.”

“The optics aren’t very good, if you take the principle that all college athletes are students first,” said Walter Harrison, a former president of the University of Hartford who once was chairman of the committee that evolved into the N.C.A.A.’s top governing body.

In virtual addresses leading up to the formal nomination of Joseph R. Biden Jr. for the presidency on Tuesday night, the party faithful who spoke on the second night of the Democratic National Convention expanded the event’s focus beyond the coronavirus crisis.

But while the bulk of the speeches addressed themes like national security, presidential accountability and continuity between past and future leaders of the party, the virus still made a few high-profile cameos:

  • Mayor Tom Barrett of Milwaukee invited Democrats to come to his city once the coronavirus crisis had passed. “Unlike the president, we never made fun of face masks,” he said. “We understand why we can’t be together this week, and we hope you do too.”

  • Former President Bill Clinton accused President Trump of downplaying the virus crisis, and of collapsing under the pressure of a real management challenge. “At a time like this, the Oval Office should be a command center,” he said. “Instead, it’s a storm center. There’s only chaos. Just one thing never changes — his determination to deny responsibility and shift the blame. The buck never stops there.”

  • Jill Biden, Mr. Biden’s wife and a former high school English teacher, expressed heartache over the losses from the coronavirus, as well as the frustration and fear it was inspiring among parents of schoolchildren. “Like so many of you, I’m left asking, ‘How do I keep my family safe?’” she said.

    The convention’s central event — its roll call vote — was drastically revamped to accommodate the constraints imposed by the pandemic. This year, it consisted of a series of pretaped recordings of delegates listing their vote tallies, replacing the iconic and photogenic ritual of delegates shouting their state’s numbers into a hand-held microphone.

Earlier this summer, Trump administration officials hailed a new strategy for catching coronavirus infections: pooled testing.

The decades-old approach combines samples from multiple people to save time and precious testing supplies. Federal health officials like Dr. Anthony S. Fauci and Adm. Brett Giroir said pooling would allow for constant surveillance of large sectors of the community, and said they hoped it would be up and running nationwide by the time students returned to school.

But now, when the nation desperately needs more tests to get a handle on the virus’s spread, this efficient approach has become worthless in many places, in part because there are simply too many cases to catch.

Pooled testing only works when the vast majority of batches test negative, among other drawbacks with the procedure. If the proportion of positives is too high, more pools come up positive — requiring each individual sample to then be retested, wasting precious chemicals.

Nebraska’s state public health laboratory, for example, was a pooling trailblazer when it began combining five samples a test in mid-March, cutting the number of necessary tests by about half.

But the lab was forced to halt its streak on April 27, when local positivity rates — the proportion of tests that turn up positive — surged past 10 percent. With that many positives, there was little benefit in pooling.

“It’s definitely frustrating,” said Dr. Baha Abdalhamid, the assistant director of the laboratory. In combination with physical distancing and mask wearing, pooling could have helped keep the virus in check, he added. But the pooling window, for now, has slammed shut.

Still, the strategy has made significant headway in some parts of the country. In New York, where test positivity rates have held at or below 1 percent since June, universities, hospitals, private companies and public health labs are using the technique in a variety of settings, often to catch people who aren’t feeling sick, said Gareth Rhodes, an aide to the governor and a member of his virus response team. Last week, the State University of New York was cleared to start combining up to 25 samples at once.

Elsewhere in the U.S.:

  • More than 43,200 new cases and more than 1,340 new deaths were reported across the country on Tuesday. Officials in Kentucky reported 19 additional deaths today, a single-day record, for a total of 859 deaths in that state since the pandemic began.

  • After an outcry over cost-cutting moves at the Postal Service that prompted allegations that the Trump administration was trying to disenfranchise voters who planned to mail in their ballots for the 2020 election, Postmaster General Louis DeJoy said Tuesday that those operational changes would be suspended until after the 2020 election. Mr. DeJoy, a major donor to President Trump, said in a statement that he was suspending the changes “to avoid even the appearance of any impact on election mail.” The changes included reducing post office hours, removing postal boxes and eliminating overtime for mail carriers.

  • Idaho, one of the states where new cases peaked this summer, is doing the least amount of testing in the country necessary to understand and contain the virus, according to a New York Times database. The United States is testing 52 percent of what it should be to slow the spread of the virus, according to a model developed by Harvard researchers, and Idaho is hitting just 16 percent of the daily testing it needs to be doing.

  • The S&P 500 closed at a record high on Tuesday, a remarkable display of investor optimism despite an economic decline that has sent unemployment soaring. Technology stocks played a big role in the gains, which were also fueled by the trillions of dollars pumped into financial markets by the Federal Reserve and enormous spending by the government to protect American workers and businesses from the worst of the downturn.

  • Senate Republicans on Tuesday began circulating text of a narrow coronavirus relief package that would revive extra unemployment benefits at half the original rate, shield businesses from lawsuits related to the virus and provide funding for testing and schools. The draft measure appears to be an effort to break through the political stalemate over providing another round of economic stimulus to Americans during the pandemic. But it is unlikely to alter the debate in Washington, where Democrats have repeatedly rejected previous Republican offers as insufficient. The new bill would spend less money, in fewer areas, than those earlier offers.

  • Covid-19 strike teams apply an emergency response model traditionally used in natural disasters like hurricanes and wildfires to combating outbreaks in long-term care facilities. Composed of about eight to 10 members from local emergency management departments, health departments, nonprofits, private businesses — and at times, the National Guard — the teams are designed to bring more resources and personnel to a disaster scene.

  • The eight N.B.A. teams that did not qualify for the season’s restart at Walt Disney World in Florida last month can create bubbles and hold voluntary group workouts at their team facilities beginning in mid-September, the league and its players’ union announced on Tuesday. The announcement by the league is an indication that the N.B.A. has faith in its approach and feels comfortable expanding it, even as the pandemic continues to affect lives daily in the United States.

The Australian government has signed a deal with the drugmaker AstraZeneca to secure a potential coronavirus vaccine, and promised to offer it free to its 25 million citizens if clinical trials were successful.

The vaccine, a partnership between the British-Swedish drug maker and Oxford University, is in Phase III clinical trials. As of July, more than 10,000 participants in Britain, Brazil and South Africa had received doses.

“The Oxford vaccine is one of the most advanced and promising in the world, and under this deal we have secured early access for every Australian,” Prime Minister Scott Morrison said in a statement on Wednesday.

He added that the vaccine doses would be manufactured domestically for its citizens, and that his office was working to secure early access for countries in Southeast Asia and those in Australia’s “Pacific family.”

Australia has also signed a $17.9 million deal with the U.S. medical technology company Becton Dickinson to supply needles and syringes.

Mr. Morrison said that Australia had so far invested $185 million in coronavirus vaccines, but did not specify the value of the AstraZeneca deal. Local news reports have estimated that the country’s overall plan to acquire vaccines would be worth billions of dollars.

The partnership between Oxford and AstraZeneca is among the most closely watched coronavirus vaccine efforts in the world. It was also the first to enter Phase III trials, and several countries — including Britain and the United States — have already agreed to pay hundreds of millions of dollars for a total of two billion doses even before the vaccine’s efficacy has been proven.

On Wednesday, Mr. Morrison cautioned that there was “no guarantee that this, or any other, vaccine will be successful,” and that his government was casting its net wide to find a vaccine.

Australia has reported 23,773 cases and 438 deaths. A recent outbreak in Melbourne, the country’s second-largest city, led to a lockdown with some of the toughest restrictions in the world.

The Philippines largely reopened for business on Wednesday, against the advice of some health experts.

The Philippines has nearly 170,000 confirmed coronavirus cases, including nearly 30,000 that were reported in the past week, according to a New York Times database. Its total caseload is the highest in Southeast Asia.

Under the rules that took effect on Wednesday, more industries were allowed to open, limited church services were allowed to resume, and restaurants welcomed dine-in customers. The rules apply in and around Manila, the capital, and several outlying provinces, a region that has been under various stages of lockdown since March.

“Almost all industries will reopen, except for those that attract mass gatherings” like amusement parks, said Harry Roque, a spokesman for President Rodrigo Duterte.

The easing of the lockdown was designed to revive a flagging economy that has taken a beating from the virus and that has officially slipped into recession in the second quarter. Mr. Duterte’s government has insisted that the majority of those infected in recent weeks have shown mild symptoms.

But health experts have warned that lifting lockdowns too quickly would lead to more cases and deaths. Nearly all of Manila’s hospitals are under severe strain.

“It’s really counterintuitive to reopen the economy amidst the steep rise of cases and the presence of fully loaded hospitals,” Dr. Anthony Leachon, a former adviser to Mr. Duterte’s government on the pandemic, said in an interview.

Businesses are caught in the middle, and some are now reopening — again — in desperation.

“We need to survive,” said Ben Razon, the owner of the Oarhouse restaurant and bar in central Manila, as he reopened on Wednesday. He last closed for a lockdown that began on Aug. 3.

Mr. Razon said the restaurant’s regular crowd had evaporated in recent months because of nighttime curfews, forcing him to adjust to daytime dining.

“I have had to assist my own crew from savings out of my own pocket in order for us to stay together as a small enterprise and be able to resume once regular operating hours resume,” he added. “In the meantime, we have to help each other.”

In other developments around the world:

  • South Korea reported 297 new infections on Wednesday, its highest daily rise since March. Kim Gang-lip, a senior health official, warned that new infections in and around Seoul, the capital, could lead to “massive nationwide transmission.” The country of about 51 million people has reported more than 16,000 confirmed infections during the pandemic, including more than 1,300 in the past week, according to a Times database.

  • Sweden has temporarily recalled its diplomats from North Korea, citing increasing difficulties with travel and diplomatic postings, in part because of the pandemic. The Swedish embassy remains open with local staff, and “Sweden is engaged in dialogue with North Korea on these subjects,” a spokesman for the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs said.

  • A tropical cyclone that passed near Hong Kong on Tuesday night created an added complication for travelers, disrupting flights and delaying the results of virus tests that are conducted on arrival before passengers begin their compulsory 14-day quarantine. Collection points for the saliva samples that people are required to take on their 10th day in quarantine were also suspended.

  • Greece has locked down two facilities for migrants where new infections have been traced, after another overcrowded reception center was put under lockdown last week, the government said. The infections are part of a recent spike in the number of cases in Greece, which has weathered the pandemic relatively well so far, with just over 7,200 confirmed cases and 230 deaths. But the authorities this week introduced new restrictions to address local outbreaks and have warned of more measures if the upward trend continues.

  • Countries putting their own interests ahead of others in trying to ensure supplies of a possible coronavirus vaccine are making the pandemic worse, the director general of the World Health Organization said on Tuesday, Reuters reported. “No one is safe until everyone is safe,” the agency’s leader, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, said during a briefing in Geneva. The organization also said the pandemic was now being driven by young people, many of whom were unaware they were infected, posing a danger to vulnerable groups.

Teachers in at least six Tennessee public school districts who may have been exposed to coronavirus can be required to teach in person anyway, under policies approved by their districts.

The districts, located in six counties in eastern and central Tennessee, are adapting C.D.C. guidelines for essential workers, according to Beth Brown, president of the Tennessee Education Association, a teachers’ organization. District officials did not immediately respond to messages seeking comment.

Under C.D.C. guidelines, most people are supposed to go into quarantine for 14 days after possible exposure. But the school districts say teachers may be expected to forego quarantine and keep working as long as they do not show symptoms, provided that “additional precautions are implemented to protect them and the community.”

Researchers have found that people who have caught the virus can spread it before they show symptoms, or without ever developing them.

John C. Bowman, executive director of Professional Educators of Tennessee, another teachers’ organization, said he expected more districts to adopt the same policies, because of a shortage of substitute teachers to cover for any who are quarantined. And he said he expected to see some teachers quit their jobs because of the policies.

“Teachers are afraid,” Mr. Bowman said. “You can open up the school buildings all day long — that’s the easy part. But without healthy educators and staff available, they’re just buildings.”

Some schools in Tennessee have been open for almost three weeks, and a few have seen virus-related disruptions. In Putnam County, at least 80 students have been quarantined because of a potential coronavirus exposure, and a middle school and a high school in Maury County postponed reopening by a few days because teachers were in quarantine.

The Tennessee Departments of Health and Education issued a joint letter to school superintendents in the state on Tuesday requiring that school districts adhere to mandatory measures for “critical infrastructure” school staff who have been exposed to the coronavirus. The measures include wearing a face covering at school, maintaining six feet of distance from others, and quarantining when not attending school.

With more than 400 shops, the Singapore Changi Airport would be the fourth-largest mall by the number of tenants if it were in the United States.

The combination of an often affluent and captive audience has made airport commercial square footage some of the most lucrative in the world. But the pandemic has crushed the commercial calculus at airports, and no one is sure what comes next.

The leading airport for concession and retail sales in the United States is Los Angeles International, with revenue of $3,036 a square foot, according to a 2018 report from Airport Experience News. By comparison, the average mall retailer is around $325 per square foot, according to 2017 data from CoStar.

But that’s all gone now, said Alan Gluck, a senior aviation consultant at ICF. “In general, sales are in the toilet,” he said.

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The very amenities that once made airports a standout for profit are the same things that are proving to be challenging.

So far, the pandemic has not paused terminals planned or in progress in the United States. Projects already underway, including at La Guardia Airport in New York and in smaller markets like Lafayette, La., are moving ahead, but taking a wait-and-see approach on adjustments.

New terminal construction should focus on space not just for the coronavirus but other respiratory illnesses, said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

New terminals needed to allow enough space for people to spread out, offer high-efficiency particulate air filtration and distribute free masks. He would also like to see more health screening at airports.

“You can’t throw up your hands and say it is impossible,” Dr. Fauci said.

The number of known deaths in prisons, jails and other correctional facilities among prisoners and correctional officers has surpassed 1,000, according to a New York Times database tracking deaths in correctional institutions.

The number of deaths in state and federal prisons, local jails and immigration detention centers — which stood at 1,002 on Tuesday morning — has increased by about 40 percent during the past six weeks, according to the database. There have been nearly 160,000 infections among prisoners and guards.

The actual number of deaths is almost certainly higher because jails and prisons perform limited testing on inmates, including many facilities that decline to test prisoners who die after exhibiting symptoms consistent with the coronavirus.

A recent study showed that prisoners are infected at a rate more than five times the nation’s overall rate. The death rate of inmates is also higher than the national rate — 39 deaths per 100,000 compared to 29 deaths per 100,000.

The Times’s database tracks coronavirus infections and deaths among inmates and correctional officers at some 2,500 prisons, jails and immigration detention centers.

The nation’s largest known virus cluster is at San Quentin State Prison in California, where more than 2,600 inmates and guards have been sickened and 25 inmates have died after a botched transfer of inmates in May. “It’s the perfect environment for people to die in — which people are,” said Juan Moreno Haines, an inmate at San Quentin.

Faced with a recent resurgence of cases, officials in France have made mask wearing mandatory in business spaces across the country, pleading with people not to let down their guard and jeopardize the hard-won gains made against the virus during a two-month lockdown this spring.

The government on Tuesday announced the mandate for mask wearing in business spaces, building on mask policies that had been in place. France “cannot wait for the health situation to get worse,” Elisabeth Borne, the French labor minister, wrote on Twitter. “With our business partners, we want to take every precaution to avoid the propagation of the virus, to protect workers and guarantee the continuity of economic activity.”

The signs of a new wave of infection emerged over the summer as people began resuming much of their pre-virus lives, traveling across France and socializing in cafes, restaurants and parks. Many, especially the young, have visibly relaxed their vigilance.

In recent days, France has recorded about 3,000 new infections every day, roughly double the figure at the beginning of the month, and the authorities are investigating an increasing number of clusters.

Thirty percent of the new infections are in young adults, ages 15 to 44, according to a recent report. Since they are less likely to develop serious forms of the illness, deaths and the number of patients in intensive care remain at a fraction of what they were at the height of the pandemic. Still, officials are not taking any chances.

“The indicators are bad, the signals are worrying, and the situation is deteriorating,” Jérôme Salomon, the French health ministry director, told the radio station France Inter last week. “The fate of the epidemic is in our hands.”

France has suffered more than 30,400 deaths from the virus — one of the world’s worst tolls — and experienced an economically devastating lockdown from mid-March to mid-May. Thanks to the lockdown, however, France succeeded in stopping the spread of the virus and lifted most restrictions at the start of summer.

The course of the pandemic in Europe has followed a somewhat similar trend, with Spain also reporting new local clusters. But important disparities exist among countries. In the past week, as France reported more than 16,000 new cases, Britain reported 7,000, and Italy 3,000, according to data collected by The Times.

The young people crowded into the pool, standing shoulder to shoulder, as they listened to a D.J. No one was wearing a mask, and no one seemed to care.

The scene would be incredible anywhere, but was especially so in this case. It was in Wuhan, the city in central China where the coronavirus pandemic began late last year.

A series of photographs and videos posted by Agence France-Presse captured the moment on Saturday night, when hundreds of people attended a pool-party rave that would have been unthinkable only months ago.

The images seemed to touch a nerve in a world where lockdowns remain in place, where fear of public spaces and entertainment venues remains high, and where the idea of wading into a public pool is tantalizingly off limits to millions of people.

It was also another example of how life is slowly returning to normal in China, even in its hardest-hit city, as other countries — even those that coped well with the first wave, like South Korea and New Zealand — struggle with new outbreaks.

Shanghai Disneyland reopened in May, while movie theaters reopened across China last month. The step-by-step return of the country’s cultural life has not ignited any significant new outbreaks, though the government remains extraordinarily vigilant.

China on Tuesday reported no new locally transmitted cases of the virus on the mainland for the second consecutive day.

The pool party in Wuhan took place at Maya Beach Water Park in conjunction with a musical festival at an adjacent amusement park called Wuhan Happy Valley. They reopened in June, two months after the city’s 76-day lockdown was lifted, although in a nod to coronavirus precautions, the parks have limited capacity by 50 percent.

The parks have been holding Saturday night concerts since July 11, featuring some of the country’s biggest performers, including Panta.Q, who performed in Happy Valley last Saturday. Up next Saturday: The singer Big Year.

New York Roundup

Both hotels and guests could be subject to fines of up to $2,000 for ignoring the rule, according to a spokeswoman for the mayor. People who had recently traveled to areas outside the city accounted for 15 to 20 percent of cases in the city over the past month, according Dr. Jay Varma, one of the mayor’s health advisers. Mr. de Blasio urged New Yorkers to avoid traveling to places restricted by New York State unless it was necessary.

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo said Tuesday that travelers from Alaska and Delaware will now also be required to quarantine for 14 days, joining a list of 31 other states as well as Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

“If you have a choice in travel, don’t go where the problem is,” Mr. de Blasio said, adding that “because, of course, if you go there there’s a chance you bring that disease back.”

New York State’s list changes each week, which has forced some college students to abandon longstanding travel plans and quickly find accommodations to serve out the quarantine. More than 59,000 private-college students in New York come from states on the list as of Tuesday, according to the Commission on Independent Colleges and Universities.

Elsewhere in the New York area:

  • The number of apartments for rent in New York City has soared to the highest rate in more than a decade, a sign that a notable number of residents have left the city because of the outbreak, at least temporarily, potentially creating a new obstacle to reviving the local economy. The surge in supply has driven down rental costs across the city and forced landlords to offer generous concessions, including up to three months’ free rent and paying the expensive fees brokers command.

  • New York City will not open gyms before Sept. 2, the mayor said Tuesday as the city needs more time to complete the inspections required under new state guidance. The state had said that gyms could open as early as Aug. 24, but the mayor said that city officials have been focused on reopening schools and child care centers. The state’s guidance on gyms also clarified that rules on capacity and mask wearing applied in apartment building gyms, and said that buffs, bandannas and gaiters could not be used as face coverings in gyms statewide.

  • The compensation packages of museum directors are drawing scrutiny as their institutions try to fill budget holes with cutbacks that have included layoffs and furloughs of lesser-paid staffers.

  • Travelers to Connecticut and New Jersey will now be subject to a 14-day quarantine if they are coming from Alaska and Delaware, as well as dozens of other states and two territories, though compliance is voluntary in New Jersey. Connecticut also removed Washington State from its list.

STUDIES ON HIGH-RISK WORK PLACES

Workers in factories, warehouses and building sites are at especially high risk of infection as American businesses reopen, according to a new report from government public health researchers.

The new analysis, published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, helps clarify which economic sectors pose the greatest danger, at a time when states are bracing for a possible new phase of the epidemic in the fall.

The C.D.C. report, along with two other just-published findings — one analyzing Covid-19 hospitalizations, the other deaths — also sheds light on racial disparities in the shape and the impact of the U.S. epidemic.

Black and Latino people were far more likely than non-Hispanic white people to be hospitalized for Covid-19, one study found. But ethnicity was not related to the risk of later dying of the disease, the other study concluded. Both were posted by the medical journal JAMA.

REMDESIVIR

A large federal study that found an experimental antiviral drug, remdesivir, can hasten the recovery of hospitalized Covid-19 patients has begun a new phase of investigation.

Researchers will examine whether adding another drug — beta interferon, which has already been approved to treat multiple sclerosis and mainly kills viruses, but can also tame inflammation — would improve remdesivir’s effects and speed recovery even more.

In a large clinical trial, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, remdesivir was shown to modestly shorten recovery time by four days on average, but it did not reduce deaths.

RARE IMMUNE SYNDROME

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome, the severe illness that strikes some children with the coronavirus, is distinct from both Kawasaki disease and from Covid-19 in adults, according to a new study.

Most children infected with the coronavirus have mild symptoms, if any at all. But on very rare occasions, some develop so-called MIS-C, characterized by widespread inflammation in the heart, lungs, brain, skin and other organs. In the United States, there were 570 confirmed cases of the syndrome and 10 deaths as of Aug. 6.

The study, published Tuesday in Nature Medicine, analyzed immune cells in 15 boys and 10 girls, aged 7 to 14 years, with the syndrome.

When the children were acutely ill with MIS-C, their immune cells behaved differently than they did in adults with Covid-19. The pattern also differs from that seen in Kawasaki disease, a similarly rare inflammatory condition in young children.

As of Aug. 3, children account for 7.3 percent of U.S. coronavirus cases, but make up about 22 percent of the overall population. The actual proportion of infected children is likely to be higher, because testing is still focused primarily on adults with symptoms.

Idaho, one of the states where new cases peaked this summer, is doing the least amount of testing in the country necessary to understand and contain the virus across the state, according to a New York Times database. Testing is critical to reducing the spread of the virus.

Harvard researchers developed a formula to determine how many daily tests a specific state should be doing to slow the spread of the virus. The researchers said that, at the very least, there should be enough daily tests to assess anyone with flulike symptoms, plus an additional 10 people for any symptomatic person who tests positive.

The United States is testing only 52 percent of what it should be to slow the spread of the virus, according to the Harvard model, and Idaho is hitting just 16 percent of the daily testing it needs to be doing. The state also has a 16 percent positivity rate, and the World Health Organization has said a positivity rate has to be under 5 percent for at least two weeks to signal that a spread is under control. (That figure is based on the assumption that the state or region is meeting their testing target.)

Idaho is also among the states that have reported the highest number of new cases per 100,000 people over the past seven days, even as the number of new cases there has slowed.

The state’s response to the virus, led by Gov. Brad Little, a Republican, came under fire in the earliest days of the pandemic for not doing enough to stop the spread of the virus. In late March, Idaho saw an average of about 16 new cases a day, compared with the current average, over a seven-day period, of more than 400 a day. Idahoans were told on March 25 to stay at home, and the state started reopening in phases on May 1.

But cases started to mount in mid-June, as happened across several states. The amount of testing in Idaho has increased since the onset of the virus, but delays in getting results have hurt efforts to contain the spread.

The radical disruptions in the rhythms of American life caused by the pandemic continued to ripple through the business world this week, with big retailers like Walmart and Home Depot reporting booming sales, and aerospace giant Boeing planning further job cuts as the airline industry continues to suffer.

Walmart, the nation’s largest retailer, saw its second-quarter sales rise 9.3 percent, driven by continuing strong demand for food and general merchandise, the company reported Tuesday. The company’s e-commerce sales alone grew 97 percent, more than double what the company had been averaging in recent years. And despite rising costs related to the pandemic, the retailer also generated larger-than-expected profit.

It was one of the clearest signs of the consolidation in the retail industry triggered by the pandemic, as many other retailers have struggled or failed in recent months.

Homeowners with time on their hands for renovations appear to have also given a boost to Home Depot, where same-store sales rose more than 23 percent in the quarter from May to July. The home-improvement and hardware retailer also saw an increase in profits, earning $4.3 billion in the second quarter compared with $3.5 billion during the same period last year.

But a homebound nation continues to cause trouble for the commercial air industry. On Monday, Boeing’s chief executive said that the company would offer a second round of buyouts, adding to the 10 percent cut the company announced in April.

Mr. Calhoun did not specify how many jobs Boeing was hoping to cut. The new buyouts will help limit involuntary layoffs and will be offered to employees who work in parts of the company most affected by the pandemic, like Boeing’s commercial airplane and services businesses.

While recent federal data shows air travel is recovering again after stalling in July, the number of people flying each day is still less than a third of what it was a year ago. Industry executives expect that figure to remain depressed until a coronavirus vaccine is widely available.

At the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, officials abruptly called off in-person classes on Monday after identifying four clusters in student housing facilities, including one at the Sigma Nu fraternity.

The New York Times has identified at least 251 cases of the virus tied to fraternities and sororities at colleges and universities across the United States.

At the University of California, Berkeley, 47 cases were identified in a single week in early July, most of which were connected to the Greek system. In Mississippi, a significant outbreak in Oxford, home to the state’s flagship university, was partially blamed on fraternity parties. At the University of Washington’s Seattle campus, at least 165 of the 290 cases identified by the school have been associated with its Greek Row.

As students return to campus, there have been virus outbreaks at residence halls and other university housing as well. More than 13,000 students, faculty and staff members at colleges have been infected with the coronavirus, according to a Times database of cases confirmed by schools and government agencies.

But fraternities and sororities have been especially challenging for universities to regulate. Though they dominate social life on many campuses, their houses are often not owned or governed by the universities, and have frequently been the site of excessive drinking, sexual assault and hazing. That same lack of oversight, some experts say, extends to controlling the virus. Even on campuses that are offering online instruction only, people are still living in some sorority and fraternity houses.

“Fraternity and sorority homes have long functioned as a kind of ‘no-fly zone’ for university administrations,” said Matthew W. Hughey, a professor of sociology at the University of Connecticut who has studied Greek life and social inequality on campuses. “The structure that’s already been set up makes them harder to control when it comes to the transmission of disease.”

You don’t need to finish everything to feel productive. Satisfaction can and should come from the smaller accomplishments in your day. Here’s how to refocus your attention on your smaller wins.

Reporting was contributed by Alan Blinder, Alexander Burns, Stephen Castle, Choe Sang-Hun, Troy Closson, Nick Corasaniti, Hannah Critchfield, Brendon Derr, Jacey Fortin, Claire Fu, Thomas Fuller, Trip Gabriel, Michael Gold, Rebecca Griesbach, Jason Gutierrez, Amy Harmon, Ethan Hauser, Mike Ives, Ann Hinga Klein, Jennifer Jett, Niki Kitsantonis, Gina Kolata, Théophile Larcher, Jonathan Martin, Tiffany May, Giulia McDonnell Nieto del Rio, Constant Méheut, Steven Lee Myers, Norimitsu Onishi, Elian Peltier, Robin Pogrebin, Frances Robles, Eliza Shapiro, Julie Shaver, Michael D. Shear, Daniel E. Slotnik, Mark Walker, Kevin Williams, Timothy Williams, Karen Zraick and Elaine Yu.

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Covid-19 News: Live Updates

California and Oregon are Democratic-led states with strong teachers’ unions, and the governors there have argued that until infection rates are brought under control, it is unsafe to fully reopen schools.Ordinarily, decisions on how best to educate children and protect the public rest with elected officials, said Tom Hutton, interim executive director of the Education…

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

California and Oregon are Democratic-led states with strong teachers’ unions, and the governors there have argued that until infection rates are brought under control, it is unsafe to fully reopen schools.

Ordinarily, decisions on how best to educate children and protect the public rest with elected officials, said Tom Hutton, interim executive director of the Education Law Association. “But a combination of factors is bringing these things to the court, one being that the stakes are so very high from an education and health standpoint,” he said.

Many judges now find themselves faced with a balancing act.

“I think courts generally are deferential to public health authorities,” Mr. Hutton said. “At the same time, on education calls, they tend to defer to school boards. And if you have the immovable object and the unstoppable force, in most cases, public safety wins.”

Some suits have presented a rare exception.

In Ohio, the parents of a special needs student in Columbus filed a suit early this month against their school district after it announced plans to follow the local health department’s recommendation and begin the school year with remote instruction. The suit, which was later joined by five other families, said the children would suffer irreparable harm.

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Other lawsuits are more ideological.

In California, for instance, the plaintiffs against the state include two Christian schools and the board that oversees charter school applications in Orange County, a small panel dominated by political conservatives who have urged schools to reopen without face masks.

And in Iowa, a suit filed Tuesday by the Des Moines schools names Gov. Kim Reynolds, a supporter of the president whose aggressive push to reopen schools has been criticized by teachers unions and health experts, and has prompted other lawsuits.

“At its core, this is a case about local control,” the Des Moines suit argues.

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On Thursday, the country reported its highest single-day case count, according to Maksym Stepanov, the minister of health. The ministry reported 2,134 cases in the past 24 hours, surpassing the record of 1,967 cases reported the day before.“Almost every day we have a new anti-record,” he told journalists in an online briefing. He reiterated requirements…

Covid-19 News: Live Updates

On Thursday, the country reported its highest single-day case count, according to Maksym Stepanov, the minister of health. The ministry reported 2,134 cases in the past 24 hours, surpassing the record of 1,967 cases reported the day before.

“Almost every day we have a new anti-record,” he told journalists in an online briefing. He reiterated requirements for wearing masks in public spaces and social distancing. “We live in a new reality that requires sticking to the certain rules,” he said. As of Friday, Ukraine had reported at least 102,900 cases and more than 2,200 deaths, according to a Times database.

Lax adherence to the rules, rather than premature lifting of restrictions, was mostly to blame, Ukrainian medical experts said. Weddings and religious ceremonies in the western part of the country were the main cause of the recent increase in cases, the prime minister, Denys Shmygal, said on Monday. In response, he said, the police are stepping up enforcement of quarantine measures.

Partly, the increase in reported cases followed an increase in testing, Svitlana Fedorova, the director of the Mykolaiv Center, a scientific body studying infectious diseases, said in a post on Facebook. About 20,000 people are now tested daily in Ukraine, authorities have said.

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But the more rapid spread in Ukraine is not wholly the result of rising rates of testing, Kateryna Bulavinova, of the United Nations Children’s Fund in Ukraine, said in an interview. “People don’t stick to the safety measures, do not keep social distance,” she said. Hospitals have not separated coronavirus and non-coronavirus patients, she said, making the health care system itself a source of infection. Because of this, she said, “the risk of getting infected is obviously higher.”

Ukraine, however, still has far fewer cases per capita than neighboring Russia and Belarus. In Belarus, President Aleksandr Lukashenko for months denied the virus posed a threat and never fully locked down the country to slow its spread. Participants in antigovernment street protests in Belarus say the failed virus response is one reason for their disaffection.

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